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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; COMMON ; INFORMATION ; EXPOSURE ; HISTORY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS ; meningioma ; TISSUE ; IMPACT ; RISK-FACTORS ; TISSUES ; tumour ; FREQUENCY ; FIELD ; FREQUENCIES ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; NUMBER ; risk factors ; COUNTRIES ; SWEDEN ; FRANCE ; NETHERLANDS ; case-control studies ; study design ; AUSTRALIA ; FINLAND ; case control study ; case-control study ; RE ; BRAIN-TUMORS ; INCREASE ; GLIOMA ; RECALL ; GLAND ; case control studies ; methods ; CELLULAR-TELEPHONE USE ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; E ; carcinogenic ; INCREASES ; case control ; acoustic neuroma ; brain tumours ; mobile phone ; MOBILE PHONE USE ; SETUP ; acoustic neurinoma ; benign tumours ; case-control ; CORDLESS TELEPHONES ; FIELDS ; mobile phones ; parotid gland tumours ; SELECTION BIAS
    Abstract: The very rapid worldwide increase in mobile phone use in the last decade has generated considerable interest in the possible health effects of exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields. A multinational case-control study, INTERPHONE, was set-up to investigate whether mobile phone use increases the risk of cancer and, more specifically, whether the RF fields emitted by mobile phones are carcinogenic. The study focused on tumours arising in the tissues most exposed to RF fields from mobile phones: glioma, meningioma, acoustic neurinoma and parotid gland tumours. In addition to a detailed history of mobile phone use, information was collected on a number of known and potential risk factors for these tumours. The study was conducted in 13 countries. Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the UK using a common core protocol. This paper describes the study design and methods and the main characteristics of the study population. INTERPHONE is the largest case-control study to date investigating risks related to mobile phone use and to other potential risk factors for the tumours of interest and includes 2,765 glioma, 2,425 meningioma, 1,121 acoustic neurinoma, 109 malignant parotid gland tumour cases and 7,658 controls. Particular attention was paid to estimating the amount and direction of potential recall and participation biases and their impact on the study results
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17636416
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  • 2
    Keywords: THERAPY ; PATIENT ; TRIALS ; AGE ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; REQUIRING PROLONGED OBSERVATION ; RECALL ; COLLABORATIVE REANALYSIS ; SEX-HORMONES
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected women. METHODS: Individual data from 117 epidemiological studies, including 118 964 women with invasive breast cancer and 306 091 without the disease, none of whom had used menopausal hormone therapy, were included in the analyses. We calculated adjusted relative risks (RRs) associated with menarche and menopause for breast cancer overall, and by tumour histology and by oestrogen receptor expression. FINDINGS: Breast cancer risk increased by a factor of 1.050 (95% CI 1.044-1.057; p〈0.0001) for every year younger at menarche, and independently by a smaller amount (1.029, 1.025-1.032; p〈0.0001), for every year older at menopause. Premenopausal women had a greater risk of breast cancer than postmenopausal women of an identical age (RR at age 45-54 years 1.43, 1.33-1.52, p〈0.001). All three of these associations were attenuated by increasing adiposity among postmenopausal women, but did not vary materially by women's year of birth, ethnic origin, childbearing history, smoking, alcohol consumption, or hormonal contraceptive use. All three associations were stronger for lobular than for ductal tumours (p〈0.006 for each comparison). The effect of menopause in women of an identical age and trends by age at menopause were stronger for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease (p〈0.01 for both comparisons). INTERPRETATION: The effects of menarche and menopause on breast cancer risk might not be acting merely by lengthening women's total number of reproductive years. Endogenous ovarian hormones are more relevant for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease and for lobular than for ductal tumours. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23084519
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Prevalence of Type 2 diabetes ; prevalence of glucose intolerance ; past and concurrent overweight ; insulin response ; hyperinsulinaemia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A representative sample (n=2140) of the Israeli Jewish population aged 40–70 (excluding known diabetic patients), whose body mass index had been measured 10 years earlier, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and redetermination of body mass index. Irrespective of weight changes, high concurrent and high past body mass index values (≥ 27) were associated with similarly increased rates of glucose intolerance as compared with body mass index values 〈 27 at both time-points (rate ratio 1.76, 90% confidence limits 1.56–1.99). Glucose intolerance here includes borderline and impaired tolerance as well as Type 2 diabetes. The rate of Type 2 diabetes increased only with increasing past body mass index, while concurrent body mass index had no effect [rate ratios: 2.36 (1.48–3.75) and 1.99 (1.48–2.68) respectively for the medium-(23–26.9) versus-low (〈23) and high- (≥ 27) versus-medium past body-mass-index categories]. Weight reduction was associated with only slightly reduced rate of glucose intolerance and had no effect on the rate of diabetes. Mean sum insulin (summed 1 and 2 h levels, mU/l) increased significantly with increasing concurrent body mass index (123, 150 and 190 in the low, medium and high categories) with no effect of past body mass index. It also increased significantly (p 〈 0.001) in all concurrent body mass index categories from normal tolerance through borderline to impaired tolerance, and decreased significantly (p 〈 0.001) in diabetes relative to impaired tolerance, although it remained above normal. Means of sum insulin within each glucose tolerance level were similar in the two lower concurrent body mass index categories, with markedly higher (p 〈 0.001) levels in the high body mass index category. All these findings held after accounting for age, sex, ethnic group and use of antihypertensive medications. We conclude that body mass index ≥ 27 leads to early impairment in glucose tolerance. A prolonged period of obesity is apparently required for the development of Type 2 diabetes and its associated reduced insulin response. The reversibility of the deterioration of glucose tolerance seems to be limited.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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