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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Apoptosis is a morphologically distinct form of programmed cell death that plays an important role in the growth regulation of a variety of tissues and also in the elimination of self-reacting immunocompetent cells. Several techniques for the qualitative and quantitative detection of this process have been established; recently, an in situ nick end-labelling technique based on the detection of DNA fragmentation, which is a molecular characteristic of apoptotic cell death, was described. Applying this method to paraffin sections of human tissues, sensitivity was observed to be inconsistently low with regard to the expected number of apoptotic cells. In the present study we show that irradiation of the tissue sections in 10 mM citrate buffer, pH 6.0, by microwaves at 750 W considerably enhances the sensitivity of this nick end-labelling technique.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1173
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter IL-7 ; Immuntherapie ; Melanom ; T-Zell-Homing ; Kutane T-Zell-Lymphome ; Key words IL-7 ; Immmunotherapy ; Melanoma ; T-cell homing ; Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The vast body of knowledge on interleukin-7 (IL-7) that has accumulated over the last few years, i.e. since its discovery in 1988, is of increasing relevance for dermatologists. Because of its particular immunological effects, IL-7 is of particular interest in two areas of dermatology. First, IL-7 can be a valuable addition to immunotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of malignant melanoma. A first pilot study of IL-7 gene-modified autologous tumour cells in the treatment of metastatic melanoma is therefore currently being initiated by the authors. Then, keratinocytes are efficient IL-7-secreting cells and there is evidence that IL-7 can modulate the presence and proliferation of normal and malignant lymphopoietic cells in the dermis. In addition, IL-7 is presently the most potent growth factor for in vitro cultivation of Sézary cells and for the establishment of Sézary cell lines. This report reviews molecular, immunological and preclinical properties of IL-7, with special reference to the possible therapeutic efficacy of this cytokine in dermatology.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Fülle an Erkenntnissen, die sich über das Interleukin-7 (IL-7) in den wenigen Jahren seit seiner Erstbeschreibung angesammelt haben, berühren zunehmend auch Gebiete der Dermatologie. Durch seine besonderen Wirkungen auf das Immunsystem tritt das IL-7 insbesondere in 2 Bereichen der Dermatologie hervor: Zum einen existieren genügend Kenntnisse, die IL-7 als ein interessantes immuntherapeutisches Agenz insbesondere bei der Bekämpfung des Melanoms erscheinen lassen. Eine erste Pilotstudie mit IL-7-genmodifizierten autologen Tumorzellen zur Behandlung des metastasierten Melanoms wird daher z.Z. von den Autoren initiiert. Zum anderen wird IL-7 von Keratinozyten produziert und scheint den Aufenthalt und das Wachstum von normalen T-Zellen sowie von Lymphomzellen in den oberen Hautschichten erheblich mitbeeinflussen zu können. IL-7 ist der derzeit potenteste Wachstumsfaktor für Sézaryzellen und eignet sich gut zur Etablierung von Sezaryzellinien. In dieser Übersicht sollen molekulare, immunologische und präklinische Eigenschaften sowie Perspektiven für Einsatzmöglichkeiten des IL-7 in der Dermatologie umrissen werden.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 396 (1982), S. 313-317 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Peanut lectin ; Peroxidase ; antiperoxidase ; Hodgkin cell
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Using an extended peroxidase-antiperoxidase method receptors for peanut lectin (PNL) can be visualized in routinely fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections. PNL binding sites are numerous in human tissue. Each tissue, however, displays its specific binding spectrum and cellular binding pattern. 35 cases of Hodgkin's disease containing all histological subtypes were examined. A prominent, constant, and characteristic binding pattern in Hodgkin- and Reed-Sternberg-cells was found. PNL is proposed as an aid for detecting these cells in diagnostic histology. It might turn out to be a very useful reagent particularly in identifying the early lesion in Hodgkin's disease in which Hodgkin cells are small and scarce.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 419 (1991), S. 1-5 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Leucocyte-function-associated antigen-3 ; Colorectal carcinoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Leucocyte-function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3) is a cell surface glycoprotein involved in T-cell/ target cell interaction. The expression of LFA-3 on the cell surface was found to be inevitably associated with the expression of HLA molecules. Loss of LFA-3 or HLA proteins on tumour cells might result in ineffective T-cell/target cell interaction and a failure of immunological tumour surveillance. Immunohistochemistry revealed that LFA-3 is expressed in normal colonic epithelium; however, in a minor fraction of colonic adenomas and in 50.3% of colorectal carcinomas LFA-3 expression was reduced or even absent. To investigate whether the presence or absence of LFA-3 in colorectal carcinomas influences the relapse rate and time of tumour-related death, 149 patients who underwent putatively curative surgery were surveyed for a maximum of 65 months (mean 48 months). In contrast to the prognostic role of tumour stage and grade, the presence versus absence of LFA-3 was not correlated with recurrence or survival. Regarding survival and growth of residual tumour cells after potentially curative resection of the initial tumour burden, we conclude that the status of LFA-3 expression in colorectal carcinoma seems to be irrelevant in vivo.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: β1 Integrins ; Immunohistochemistry ; Breast tissue ; Prognostic parameters
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract β1 Integrins were examined immunohisto-chemically in normal and mastopathic mammary glands, 12 benign tumours and 90 carcinomas of the breast using monoclonal antibodies againstβ1 andα1 toβ6 subunits. When compared with epithelial cells of non-neoplastic mammary glands and of benign tumours, carcinoma cells showed considerable quantitative changes in the pattern ofα2,α3 andα6 subunit expression. In contrast, the distribution pattern ofβ1,α1,α4 andα5 antigens corresponded to the situation observed in non-neoplastic mammary gland epithelium in most instances. An abnormal expression ofα2 was found in 71.0% of the carcinomas ranging from a remarkably low number ofα2-positive tumour cells in 27.5% of the cases to a complete absence of theα2 molecule in 43.5% of the carcinomas. Of the carcinomas 39.9% exhibited quantitative changes inα3 expression with an abnormally low content ofα3-positive neoplastic cells in 15.4% and a complete absence of this molecule in 24.5% of the cases. Expression ofα6 was abnormal in 73.2% of the carcinomas, consisting in a greater number ofα6-negative tumour cells in 31.9% and in a complete absence ofα6 in 41.3% of the tumours. The abnormally low expression/absence ofα2 andα3 subunits correlated with oestrogen receptor negativity (P〈0.033 andP〈0.04, respectively). In addition, abnormally low expression/absence ofα2 correlated with poor differentiation of the tumours (P〈 0.014). The quantitative changes in the expression pattern ofβ1-associatedα subunits in breast carcinomas may cause a disturbed cell-cell and/or cell-matrix interaction that increases the invasive and migratory property of the tumour cells.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: CD44 ; Leucocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 ; B-lymphocytes ; B-cell neoplasms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Lymphocytes leave the blood via post-capillary venules by binding initially to their specialized endothelium. CD44 is a 80–90 kDa hyaluronate-binding glycoprotein involved in binding to endothelium of high endothelial venules (HEV). LECAM-1 is a 75–85 kDa glycoprotein with lectin activity interacting with human peripheral lymph node vascular addressin (PNAd) on HEV. This immunohistochemical study shows that CD44 and LECAM-1 are essentially coordinately expressed on B-lymphocytes. The mode and level of CD44/ LECAM-1 expression dissect the peripheral B-cell development into stages that are closely linked to morphologically defined B-cell compartments. Although statistically correlated in B-cell leukaemias (p〈0.0009) and extranodal B-cell lymphomas (p〈0.003), expression of both molecules was less stringently coordinated in 127 B-cell neoplasms examined. B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, hairy cell leukaemia and mantle zone lymphoma were CD44/LECAM-1 positive, thus corresponding to their reactive counterparts. Correspondingly, follicular centre cell-derived lymphomas were devoid of both markers. Conversely, CD44 and LEC-AM-1 were infrequently detectable in extranodal malignant B-cell neoplasms, irrespective of their maturational state. Presence versus absence of CD44 and LECAM-1, alone or together, determined neither the leukaemic versus aleukaemic state nor the nodal versus extranodal tumour-forming phenotype of a B-cell tumour.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 403 (1984), S. 257-270 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Hodgkin's disease ; lymph node ; angioarchitecture ; Ulex europaeus lectin I
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Using an extended indirect immunoperoxidase method and the lectin I of Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), whose binding sites in lymph nodes are restricted to endothelial cells and erythrocytes, the angioarchitecture of 31 lymph nodes affected by Hodgkin's disease (HD) was demonstrated and analyzed. Compared with the normal state, the lymphocytic predominance type has a low relative vascular density, and venular endothelium is epithelioid throughout. Mixed cellularity types, especially those rich in epithelioid cells, have the lowest relative vascular density; the venular endothelium is often flat. In the sclerosing areas of the nodular sclerosis type structurel differences between capillaries, arterioles and venules vanish. Due to parenchymal atrophy and cellular depletion, relative vascular density is markedly increased in such areas, as is the case in lymphocytic depletion types. Despite all the histomorphological changes occurring in HD, the vascular system of the lymph node, surprisingly, does not undergo profound alteration. There is a positive correlation between the degree of epithelioid transformation of venular endothelium and trans-venular lymphocytic traffic. The conditions are described under which the otherwise non-reactive sinus endothelium expresses the UEA-I receptor.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Granular cell tumour ; Peanut lectin ; Lysozyme ; Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Peanut lectin (PNL) binding to a total of 13 granular cell tumours was examined by means of the peroxidase antiperoxidase technique. The tumours included six tumourettes of the neurohypophysis, one malignant granular cell tumour of the brain, and six peripheral tumours of distinct locations. Every tumour studied showed intracytoplasmic fine granular PNL binding; after pretreatment with neuraminidase, the weakly positive reaction was enhanced to a great extent. In all tumours simultaneous examination for the detection of lysozyme and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was also carried out. Lysozyme was negative in all cases, whereas GFAP expression could be demonstrated at the periphery of the malignant granular cell tumour of the brain. The data presented clearly demonstrate that PNL can be used as a histochemical marker for granular cells regardless of their location. The fact that the presence of lysozyme could not be proved does not support the view of a histiocytic origin for granular cells, whereas the expression of GFAP in some immature granular cells of the brain tumour examined is considered to be an argument in favor of its glial origin.
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