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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words  Wild species ; Introgression ; Meloidogyne chitwoodi ; Gene mapping ; Potato resistance breeding ; QTL
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract   The mapping of resistance to Meloidogyne chitwoodi derived from Solanum bulbocastanum is reported. A population suitable for mapping was developed as follows. A somatic hybrid of nematode-resistant S. bulbocastanum and cultivated tetraploid potato was produced. This was backcrossed to tetraploid potato, and a single resistant BC1 was selected and backcrossed again to the same recurrent tetraploid parent. The mapping population consisted of 64 BC2 progeny scored for restriction fragment length polymorphic (RFLP) markers and 62 of these were evaluated for the reproductive efficiency of race 1 of M. chitwoodi. Forty-eight polymorphic RFLP markers, originally derived from tomato and mapped in diploid cultivated potato, were assigned to 12 chromosomes of S. bulbocastanum. Of the 62 progeny screened for nematode resistance, 18 were non-hosts and four were poor hosts. The rest were highly susceptible (good hosts). Analysis of the resistance (including non-hosts and poor hosts) as both a qualitative trait and as a meristic trait on which QTL analysis was applied supported the same genetic hypothesis. Genetic control was localized solely to factor(s) lying at one end of chromosome 11. The level of expression of resistance in the S. bulbocastanum parent and the resistant portion of the BC2 was essentially the same. This fact, together with the highly significant LOD scores for one end of the chromosome-11 marker array, supports a genetic model equivalent to monogenic dominant control.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Wild species ; Introgression ; Meloidogyne chitwoodi ; Gene mapping ; Potato resistance breeding ; QTL
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The mapping of resistance toMeloidogyne chitwoodi derived from Solarium bulbocastanum is reported. A population suitable for mapping was developed as follows. A somatic hybrid of nematode-resistant S. bulbocastanum and cultivated tetraploid potato was produced. This was backcrossed to tetraploid potato, and a single resistant BC1 was selected and backcrossed again to the same recurrent tetraploid parent. The mapping population consisted of 64 BC2 progeny scored for restriction fragment length polymorphic (RFLP) markers and 62 of these were evaluated for the reproductive efficiency of race 1 of M. chitwoodi. Forty-eight polymorphic RFLP markers, originally derived from tomato and mapped in diploid cultivated potato, were assigned to 12 chromosomes of S. bulbocastanum. Of the 62 progeny screened for nematode resistance, 18 were non-hosts and four were poor hosts. The rest were highly susceptible (good hosts). Analysis of the resistance (including non-hosts and poor hosts) as both a qualitative trait and as a meristic trait on which QTL analysis was applied supported the same genetic hypothesis. Genetic control was localized solely to factor(s) lying at one end of chromosome 11. The level of expression of resistance in the S. bulbocastanum parent and the resistant portion of the BC2 was essentially the same. This fact, together with the highly significant LOD scores for one end of the chromosome-11 marker array, supports a genetic model equivalent to monogenic dominant control.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Mycotoxins ; Toxic Aspergilli ; Pistachio nuts
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Pistachio nut samples taken during various stages of development from orchards in Iran, showed that contamination with fungi occurred mainly during the later stages of nut development. Members of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium occurred most frequently. Of the Aspergilli, the species A. niger, A. flavus and A. fischeri var. spinosus occurred most frequently, followed by A. terreus, A. tamarii and A. nidulans. Twenty-two isolates comprising 13 species were tested for toxicity to ducklings. Isolates of known toxic fungi included A. flavus, A. niger, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus, A. versicolor, A. nidulans and A. terreus. The toxicity of A. fischeri var. spinosus is reported. Chemical analysis showed that all isolates of A. flavus and A. parasiticus produced aflatoxin B1, the isolates of A. versicolor and A. nidulans produced sterigmatocystin while the toxic isolate of A. ochraceus did not produce ochratoxins. Toxic fungi have been shown to occur in a variety of nuts (4), (5), (11), (12), (13), (15), (18), (20), (21). Aflatoxin contamination of pistachio nuts has been reported and has in the past led to the rejection of consignments of Iranian pistachio nuts (1). In Iran, pistachio nuts are produced mainly in the south eastern provinces (Kerman & Zahedan) and to a limited extent in the Northern part (Kazvin & Damghan). In 1975 it was estimated (7) that there were some 24 million pistachio trees in Iran, of which 60% were situated in Rafsanjan, Kerman (Table 1). Economic considerations as well as the potential health hazard posed by aflatoxin-contaminated nuts, prompted the University of Isfahan to initiate a study of various aspects of the mycotoxin problem in pistachio nuts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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