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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; EFFICIENCY ; INDUCTION ; CYCLE ; MEMBERS ; virus ; STRESS ; QUALITY-CONTROL ; ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM ; CLASS-I MOLECULES ; OXIDOREDUCTASE ERP57 ; PEPTIDE-LOADING COMPLEX ; RE ; DEPENDENT REDUCTASE ERP57 ; INFLUENZA HEMAGGLUTININ ; LOSSES ; CELLULAR PROTEINS ; GLYCOPROTEIN-SYNTHESIS ; PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASE ; REDUCED RIBONUCLEASE
    Abstract: Members of the protein-disulfide isomerase superfamily catalyze the formation of intra- and intermolecular disulfide bonds, a rate-limiting step of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum ( ER). Here we compared maturation of one obligate and two facultative calnexin substrates in cells with and without ERp57, the calnexin-associated, glycoprotein-specific oxidoreductase. ERp57 deletion did not prevent the formation of disulfide bonds during co-translational translocation of nascent glycopolypeptides in the ER. It affected, however, the post-translational phases of oxidative influenza virus hemagglutinin ( HA) folding, resulting in significant loss of folding efficiency for this obligate calnexin substrate. Without ERp57, HA also showed reduced capacity to recover from an artificially induced aberrant conformation, thus revealing a crucial role of ERp57 during post-translational reshuffling to the native set of HA disulfides. ERp57 deletion did not affect maturation of the model facultative calnexin substrates E1 and p62 ( and of most cellular proteins, as shown by lack of induction of ER stress). ERp72 was identified as one of the ER-resident oxidoreductases associating with the orphan ERp57 substrates to maintain their folding competence
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16407314
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1590-3478
    Keywords: Thalamus ; Thalamo-cortical ; Development ; Cortico-thalamic ; Sleep ; Wakefulness ; Intralaminar nuclei ; Thalamic reticular nucleus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Sommario I dati sperimentali degli ultimi decenni hanno determinato una sostanziale revisione della conoscenza dell'organizzazione anatomica e funzionale del talamo e delle interrelazioni fra il talamo e la corteccia cerebrale. La presente revisione dei dati sperimentali à mirata ad una sintesi delle moderne teorie sulle connessioni talamo-corticali e sulle funzioni talamiche e ad un loro inquadramento nella prospettiva storica degli studi sul talamo. In particolare, alla luce dei contributi sperimentali più recenti, viene discusso a) che il talamo possa svolgere diverse funzioni a seconda dello stato funzionale dei sistemi afferenti e b) che le diverse entità cellulari talamiche possano giocare un ruolo cruciale nei diversi stati funzionali.
    Notes: Abstract The last decade has witnessed major changes in the experimental approach to the study of the thalamus and to the analysis of the anatomical and functional interrelations between thalamic nuclei and cortical areas. The present review focuses on the novel anatomical approaches to thalamo-cortical connections and thalamic functions in the historical framework of the classical studies on the thalamus. In the light of the most recent data it is here discussed that: a) the thalamus can subserve different functions according to functional changes in the cortical and subcortical afferent systems; b) the multifarious thalamic cellular entities play a crucial role in the different functional states.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Urinary trypsin inhibitors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Human urine contains a family of trypsin inhibitors. Procedures for their purification and characterization involve laborious techniques and the conclusions are different in the identification of the separated compounds. We report results obtained by applying our RP-HPLC method to some procedures adopted by different authors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1590-3478
    Keywords: pseudotumor cerebri ; Addison's disease ; intracranial hypertension
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Sommario Una paziente ha presentato segni clinici di ipertensione endocranica, papilledema bilaterale e diplopia, in associazione con lieve ipotensione arteriosa, iponatriemia e ipercaliemia. È stata avanzata e confermata la diagnosi di malattia di Addison. La terapia sostitutiva instaurata ha determinato una completa remissione del quadro clinico. Il presente studio rappresenta la prima evidenza di Pseudotumor Cerebri quale unico segno clinico di crisi addisoniana.
    Notes: Abstract In a patient who developed clinical signs of intracranial hypertension, bilateral papilledema and diplopia, in association with mild hypotension, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia, the hypothesis of Addison's disease was raised and confirmed. Substitutional therapy led to complete recovery. The present paper represents the first report of pseudotumor cerebri as the only clinical sign of an Addisonian crisis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 77 (2000), S. 3499-3501 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Photoluminescence in the visible domain can be observed in amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx) alloys prepared by evaporation of silicon under a flow of nitrogen ions. A strong improvement of the photoluminescence intensity was obtained with annealing treatments in the range 500–1150 °C. Structural investigations were performed by infrared and Raman spectrometry experiments. The optical gap was obtained from transmission measurements in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared range. The evolutions of the structure and the optical properties with annealing treatments are correlated to the evolution of the photoluminescence. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary To obtain an adequate separation of the products of this reaction, which consisted of a mixture of chloro derivatives in solution in CCl4, with concentrations less than 0.1%, the method of programmed temperature (100–160°C) gas chromatography was applied. A column containing 30% DC-11 silicone on Chromosorb W, and ionization detectors were used. Five products (CH2Cl2, CHCl3, C2Cl4, C2HCl5 and C2Cl6) were identified. Quantitative determination of two of them (CHCl3 and C2Cl6) was made, using calibration curves.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cortico-thalamic system ; Crossed projections ; WGA-HRP anterograde tracing ; Motor cortex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The anterograde transport of lectin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) was here employed in order to visualize crossed cortico-thalamic efferents of the motor cortex in rats and cats. After WGA-HRP cortical injections in the rat retrogradely labeled cells were observed in the ipsilateral thalamus, and heavy anterograde labeling was observed both in the ipsi-and contralateral thalamus. The contralateral anterograde labeling was less intense than the ipsilateral one and it was distributed in the anterior intralaminar structures, in the parafascicular nucleus, in the ventromedial, ventrolateral and ventrobasal nuclei and in the posterior complex, symmetrically to the labeling observed on the ipsilateral side. Further experiments were made in the rat in order to ascertain that the bilateral anterograde labeling in the thalamus derived unilaterally from the cortex. To this purpose, kainic acid was injected unilaterally either into the frontal cortex or into the thalamus, and WGA-HRP was later injected on the same side in the frontal cortex. Moreover, WGA-HRP was injected into the frontal cortex after splitting of the corpus callosum. The results obtained in these experiments confirmed that cortical neurons projected bilaterally upon the thalamus. Further, these experiments indicated that at least the majority of the contralateral fronto-thalamic fibers crossed the midline in the thalamic massa intermedia. WGA-HRP injections into the pericruciate cortex in the cat confirmed the presence of anterogradely labeled terminals in the contralateral anterior and posterior intralaminar, ventral anterior, ventromedial and ventrolateral nuclei. The labeling was in all cases heavier in the intralaminar nuclei than in the other structures, but it was less intense than that observed in the rat. The labeling in the contralateral principal nuclei was heavier in one case in which the injection area diffused into the proreal cortex than in the other cats. Thus, the present results indicate that frontal efferents terminate more densely in the rat's than in the cat's contralateral thalamus. In the latter species frontal fibers are mainly distributed upon the contralateral intralaminar nuclei, whereas in the rat frontal efferents are also heavily distributed upon the ventral nuclear complex.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Tachykinin ; Immunocytochemistry ; Thalamus ; Trigeminal ; Monkey
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Immunocytochemistry of fetal and adult monkey thalamus reveals a dense concentration of tachykinin immunoreactive fibers and terminals in the dorsolateral part of the VPM nucleus in which the contralateral side of the head, face and mouth is represented. The immunoreactive fibers enter the VPM nucleus from the thalamic fasciculus and electron microscopy reveals that they form large terminals resembling those of lemniscal axons and terminating in VPM on dendrites of relay neurons and on presynaptic dendrites of interneurons. Double labeling strategies involving immunostaining for tachykinins after retrograde labeling of brainstem neurons projecting to the VPM failed to reveal the origin of the fibers. The brainstem trigeminal nuclei, however, are regarded as the most likely sources of the VPM-projecting, tachykinin positive fibers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 82 (1990), S. 483-492 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Hemicerebellectomy ; Recovery of function ; Infant lesion effect ; Rats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Rats with a right hemicerebellectomy (HCb) performed in adulthood or at weaning were compared behaviourally to rats with a similar lesion performed on the first postnatal day. The age at which animals received cerebellar lesions made a significant difference with respect to the behavioural outcome in adulthood. Posture, locomotion and motor behaviour were analysed by a battery of sensorimotor tests. Behavioural measurements showed a clear relationship between age at surgery and behavioural effects; rats with neonatal cerebellar lesions showed a slight extensor hypotonia contralateral to the lesion side and efficient locomotor activity, while the adult operated group exhibited a severe extensor hypotonia ipsilateral to the lesion side and hampered locomotion characterized by a wide base and ataxia. Weanling operated rats displayed a symptomatology similar to that observed in adult operates, although less severe. In the postural dynamic adjustments which the sensorimotor tests required, the youngest operated animals obtained higher scores in comparison to the other two experimental groups, except for the lack of hindlimb usage in the suspension on a wire test. These results, which show the importance of the age-at-lesion factor for the recovery of motor function after HCb in the rat, are discussed in the light of the widespread anatomical reorganization already demonstrated following neonatal HCb in rats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 82 (1990), S. 472-482 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cerebellum ; Neonatal lesion ; Motor development ; Rats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a neonatal hemicerebellectomy (HCb) on the motor development of rats and to determine whether various aspects of motor behaviour were affected to a similar degree. Postnatal development of postural reflexes, locomotion and dynamic postural adjustments was examined during the first four months of life in normal and in neonatal HCbed rats. The results indicate that classes of motor responses are controlled by cerebellar networks to clearly different extents. Emergence of quadruped stance, placing reactions and swimming development were unaffected by neonatal cerebellar lesion. Righting reflexes, cliff avoidance and geotaxic reactions, pivoting and crawling all showed a delayed development although the subsequent recovery was almost complete. The complex postural adjustments required in crossing a narrow path or in suspending on a wire remained permanently impaired. Finally, some behaviours developed normally and only subsequently became defective. This “growing into a deficit” was displayed by the progressively reduced hindlimb grasping and the development of a vestibular drop response with a directional bias. An impressive finding was the shifting of postural asymmetries from the lesion side to the contralateral one occurring around the third postnatal week. These data providing a description of the effect of HCb on motor development are interpreted as indicating a progressive involvement of the archi- and neo-cerebellar structures in the motor function of the rat.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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