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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 104 (1982), S. 3481-3487 
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Harzianin HA V and saturnisporin SA IV are α-amino isobutyric-containing peptides with 18- and 20-residue chain length, respectively. They were isolated from in vitro cultures of Trichoderma species and their sequences were determined by the combined use of positive ion FAB mass spectrometry and NMR. In organic solvent solution, both peptides exhibited the same predominant α-helical secondary structure including a hinge at the level of the central Pro residue, as deduced from NMR data. Their interaction with neutral phospholipid bilayers was shown to induce leakage of the material entrapped in small unilamellar vesicles composed of egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (7/3). When incorporated into neutral planar lipid bilayers, they promoted voltage-gated channels. The concentration- and voltage-dependences of the ionic conductances induced by these peptides were studied in macroscopic current-voltage experiments. Single-channel measurements showed that whilst SA IV developed non-integral multi-open states similar to those induced by alamethicins, but with faster kinetics, the shorter analogue, HA V promoted much smaller-sized conducting aggregates in agreement with macroscopic conductance data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The proteolytic fragments of OprFs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens were identified, respectively, as the first 175 and 177 amino acids from the N-terminal domain. They induced ion channels after reincorporation into planar lipid bilayers (85 and 75 pS, respectively, in 1 M NaCl). A similar conductance value (72 pS) was found for the eight β-strand OmpA N-terminal domain (OmpA171) of Escherichia coli. We conclude that the N-terminal domain of OprFs is sufficient to induce ion channels and the comparison with OmpA171, provides strong evidence of the existence of an eight-stranded β-barrel in the N-terminal domain of OprFs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The mechanism of action of microcin E492 (MccE492) was investigated for the first time in live bacteria. MccE492 was expressed and purified to homogeneity through an optimized large-scale procedure. Highly purified MccE492 showed potent antibacterial activity at minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 0.02–1.2 µM. The microcin bactericidal spectrum of activity was found to be restricted to Enterobacteriaceae and specifically directed against Escherichia and Salmonella species. Isogenic bacteria that possessed mutations in membrane proteins, particularly of the TonB–ExbB–ExbD complex, were assayed. The microcin bactericidal activity was shown to be TonB- and energy-dependent, supporting the hypothesis that the mechanism of action is receptor mediated. In addition, MccE492 depolarized and permeabilized the E. coli cytoplasmic membrane. The membrane depolarization was TonB dependent. From this study, we propose that MccE492 is recognized by iron-siderophore receptors, including FepA, which promote its import across the outer membrane via a TonB- and energy-dependent pathway. MccE492 then inserts into the inner membrane, whereupon the potential becomes destabilized by pore formation. Because cytoplasmic membrane permeabilization of MccE492 occurs beneath the threshold of the bactericidal concentration and does not result in cell lysis, the cytoplasmic membrane is not hypothesized to be the sole target of MccE492.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The major outer membrane proteins (OprF) from Pseudomonas fluorescens MFO and OE 28.3 were purified by a new method involving native electrophoresis in octyl-polyoxyethylene media. Both proteins, characterized by the same size, heat-modifiability and N-terminal sequence were re-incorporated in virtually solvent-free planar lipid bilayers. They displayed very similar channel-forming properties: the major conductance level was between 250 pS and 270 pS in l M NaCl. From experiments of zero-current potential, both porins were determined weakly cation selective. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of the oprF gene of strain MFO allowed to point out 94% identity between the amino acid sequences of these two OprFs isolated from ecological niches as different as milk (strain MFO) and soil (strain OE 28.3).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In Enterobacter aerogenes, multidrug resistance involves a decrease in outer membrane permeability associated with changes in an as yet uncharacterized porin. We purified the major porin from the wild-type strain and a resistant strain. We characterized this porin, which was found to be an OmpC/OmpF-like protein and analysed its pore-forming properties in lipid bilayers. The porin from the resistant strain was compared with the wild-type protein and we observed (i) that its single-channel conductance was 70% lower than that of the wild type; (ii) that it was three times more selective for cations; (iii) a lack of voltage sensitivity. These results indicate that the clinical strain is able to synthesize a modified porin that decreases the permeability of the outer membrane. Mass spectrometry experiments identified a G to D mutation in the putative loop 3 of the porin. Given the known importance of this loop in determining the pore properties of porins, we suggest that this mutation is responsible for the novel resistance mechanism developed by this clinical strain, with changes in porin channel function acting as a new bacterial strategy for controlling β-lactam diffusion via porins.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In addition to the activation of cAMP-dependent pathways, odorant binding to its receptor can lead to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) production that may induce the opening of plasma membrane channels. We therefore investigated the presence and nature of such channels in carp olfactory cilia. Functional analysis was performed by reconstitution of the olfactory cilia in planar lipid bilayers (tip-dip method). In the presence of InsP3 (10 μm) and Ca2+ (100 n m), a current of 1.6 ± 0.1 pA (mean ± SEM, n = 4) was measured, using Ba2+ as charge carrier. The I/V curve displayed a slope conductance of 45 ± 5 pS and a reversal potential of −29 mV indicating a higher selectivity for divalent cations. This current was characterized by two mean open times (3.0 ± 0.4 ms and 42.0 ± 2.6 ms, n = 4) and was strongly inhibited by ruthenium red (30 μm) or heparin (10 μg/mL). Importantly, the channel activity was closely dependent on the Ca2+ concentration, with the highest open probability (Po) at 100 n m Ca2+ (Po = 0.50 ± 0.02, n = 4). Po is lower at both higher and lower Ca2+ concentrations. A structural identification of the channel was attempted by using a large panel of antibodies, raised against several InsP3 receptor (InsP3R)/Ca2+ release channel isoforms. The type 1 InsP3R was detected in carp cerebellum and whole brain, while a lower molecular mass InsP3R, which may correspond to type 2 or 3, was detected in heart, whole brain and the soma of the olfactory neurons. None of the antibodies, however, cross-reacted with olfactory cilia. Taken together, these results indicate that in carp olfactory cilia an InsP3-dependent channel is present, distinct from the classical InsP3Rs localized on intracellular membranes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: ion channels ; amphipathicity ; α-helices ; bilayers ; SDS micelles ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Synthetic alamethicin analogs, in which all Aib residues had been replaced by Leu (L2) then proline 14 replaced by an alanine (L5), were studied in SDS micelles using circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. Nuclear Overhauser effects were used as constraints for molecular modelling. The structures determined for both peptides in SDS micelles were compared with those previously obtained in methanol in order to establish a secondary structure/ionophore activity relationship. Our results indicated that a shortening of peptide helices could be responsible for the observed decrease in ion channel lifetimes. However, the length of helices may not by itself explain the drastic destabilization of channels when Pro14 of alamethicin is replaced by Ala in L5. Indeed analysis of the helical wheel of L5 reveals heterogeneity in the amphipathicity depending on the medium. Thus, loss of amphipathicity seems to underly the observed destabilization of channels. © 1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: biotinylgramicidin ; peptide synthesis ; planar lipid bilayers ; ion channel ; biotin-avidin interactions ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new linear gramicidin analog bearing a biotinyl group grafted on C-terminal part was designed to study ligand-receptor interactions. The C-terminal alcohol in the native peptide was first replaced by an amino group. Then the peptide was synthesized on a polystyrene resin functionalized by the 2-chlorotrityl chloride following a biotinylation performed in solution. This new N′-biotinyl-(EDA)15-Gramicidin A was reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers and exhibited channel activities similar to those of natural gramicidin, with unitary conductance value about 30 ps in 1 m KCl. Furthermore this ionophore activity was quenched by addition of streptavidin in the surrounding medium. Our system is an outstanding tool for monitoring ligand-receptor interactions and could be used for designing a new biosensor. © 1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Due to the bend introduced by proline 14 in the conformation of alamethicin (AcUPUAUQUVUGLUPVUUEQFol), the role of this residue was assumed essential in the barrel-stave model for voltage-gated ion channels. Taking advantage of a previous synthetic alamethicin analogue (L2) in which all eight α-aminoisobutyric(U) Were replaced by leucines (AcLPLALAQLVLGLLPVLLEQFol), another analogue (L5) was synthesized in order to test the effects ofproline-14 substitution by an alanine (AcLPLALAQLVLGLLPVLLEQFol). Previous conductance experiments showed that both high voltage dependence and multistate behavior were conserved. In order to complement these functional results, a conformational study of L5 has been undertaken and compared to L2 using CD. high field nmr, and molecular dynamics. Results show that L5 presents a better ordered structure than L2 particularly in the region of the substitution and in the C-terminal part. These results are discussed as regards the previous hypothesis of the nonessential character of helix bending for the gating of voltage-dependent ion channels. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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