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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cat ; Nucleus medialis dorsalis ; Ventral tegmental area ; Nucleus accumbens ; Pericruciate cortex ; Attentional mechanisms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In anaesthetized cats, single units were recorded from the ventrolateral part of n. medialis dorsalis (MD) of the thalamus. Cells were tested for their ortho- or antidromic short latency responses to single electrical shocks applied to the pericruciate cortex (PCx) and to either the mesencephalic ventral tegmental area (VTA) or the nucleus accumbens (ACC). Some reciprocal direct connections were thus shown to exist between MD and PCx, i.e. a cortical area posterior to the main classical MD “prefrontal” projection zone. Reciprocal direct connections were also identified physiologically between MD and VTA and between MD and ACC. Coupled stimulations showed that some MD cells could serve as a relay for a pathway from VTA to cortex, others for a reciprocal pathway from PCx to VTA, and still others, for a pathway from PCx to ACC. These findings are compared to previous — mostly anatomical — data obtained in other species, mainly rat. Their functional meaning is also discussed, in the light of previous results on the roles of MD, VTA and ACC in the control of immobility during focused attentive behaviour in cat.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The gyrus dentatus is one of the few areas of the brain that continues to produce neurons after birth. The newborn cells differentiate into granule cells which project axons to their postsynaptic targets. This step is accompanied by the transient expression of the polysialylated isoforms of neuronal cell adhesion molecules (PSA-NCAM) by the developing neurons. Glucocorticoid hormones have been shown to inhibit neurogenesis. We noted a functional correlation between PSA-NCAM expression and glucocorticoid action after manipulation of corticosterone levels in the adrenalectomized rat. Adrenalectomy increased neurogenesis, evaluated from the incorporation of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine in neuronal precursors, as well as PSA-NCAM expression. The increase in PSA-NCAM-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the gyrus dentatus, evidenced 72 h following adrenalectomy, persisted for at least a month. It was accompanied by enhanced dendritic arborization of PSA-NCAM-IR cells in the gyrus dentatus and by an increase in number of PSA-NCAM-IR fibres in the CA3 subfield. Neurogenesis was normalized by restitution of diurnal or nocturnal levels of corticosterone, whereas normalization of PSA-NCAM expression was only observed after simulation of the complete circadian fluctuation of the hormone. Our findings reveal the complex action of corticosterone in modulating the expression of PSA-NCAM in the gyrus dentatus of the hippocampal formation. They also highlight the importance of corticosterone fluctuations in the control of neurogenesis and plasticity in this structure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The dentate gyrus is one of the few areas of the adult brain that continues to produce neurons and to express the embryonic polysialylated isoforms of neuronal cell adhesion molecules (PSA-NCAM). The stress hormone corticosterone exerts a complex modulation on neurogenesis and PSA-NCAM, and previous studies have shown that mature granule cells require corticosterone for their survival. Thus, the aim of our work was to investigate the respective role of the different corticosteroid receptors on these three parameters in adrenalectomized rats. It was found that treatment with a low dose of the mineralocorticoid receptor agonist, aldosterone, prevents only the adrenalectomy-induced increase in cell death. Treatment with a higher dose of aldosterone normalized cell proliferation whereas PSA-NCAM expression was normalized only by treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor agonist, RU 28362. It is concluded that stimulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor is sufficient to mediate the effects of corticosterone on neurogenesis and to protect mature cells from cell death whereas stimulation of the glucocorticoid receptor is necessary to modulate PSA-NCAM expression.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Ageing is accompanied by a decline in neurogenesis and in polysialylated isoforms of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) expression within the hippocampus and by elevated basal levels of circulating corticosterone. In a companion study, we demonstrated that suppression of corticosterone by adrenalectomy increased neurogenesis and PSA-NCAM expression in the dentate gyrus of adult rats. Here we show that adrenalectomy increased neurogenesis in this structure in old rats, as measured by the incorporation of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine in neuronal progenitors. This effect was prevented by corticosterone replacement. In contrast, PSA-NCAM expression remained unchanged in comparison with controls. Thus, in the aged brain, stem cells are still present and able to enter the cell cycle. This may point to ways of protecting or treating age-related cognitive impairments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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