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  • 1
    ISSN: 1618-2545
    Keywords: morphology ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; physiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have studied the physiological and morphological features of 17 isolates ofParacoccidioides brasiliensis in order to define their phenotypes. The isolates were cultured at room temperature on potato dextrose agar (PDA, Difco) slants for mycelial growth and in 1% dextrose brain heart infusion agar (BHIA, Difco) at 37°C for the study of yeast forms. Most mycelial and yeast forms grew well between pH 5.6–9.4. In their response to osmotic pressure the isolates were separated in three groups: intolerant, intermediate and tolerant. They also varied in carbohydrate assimilation tests, which indicated important metabolic variation. No clear differences were observed in phenol oxidase tests, KNO3, starch, casein and arbutin assimilation tests. Only 1 of the isolates, Bt-19, had gelatinase activity. No correlation was observed between the above differences and virulence. Two patterns of growth were observed in the mycelial cultures, glabrous and cottonous, the latter being correlated with increased virulence for ddY mice. Most yeast forms grew as cerebriform colonies, but Pb-HC and Bt-19 colonies had a cobblestone-like surface.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Brazil ; dimorphic fungi ; ecology ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We compared the antigenic characteristics of two thermo-dependent dimorphic fungi isolated from soil in Botucatu, an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The soil isolates grew as cerebriform colonies at 37 °C (yeast form) and as cottonous colonies at 25 °C (mycelial form). No pathogenicity for ddY mice or hamsters were observed. In immunodiffusion test, there were precipitation bands between the 2 soil isolates and pooled PCM patient sera. There were also common precipitation bands at 21, 50 and 58 kDa between the soil isolates antigens and PCM patient sera by Western-blotting, but no gp43 kDa band. No gene for gp 43 kDa protein was detected in the soil isolates by PCR. The fact that these isolates were obtained from an endemic area of PCM and there were some antigenic similarities between the soil isolates and P. brasiliensis in immunodiffusion test and Western-blotting may have some importance in epidemiological surveys done with paracoccidioidin as well interfering with the immune response of the exposed population.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: armadillo ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; PCR ; RAPD
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sixty-three Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates obtained from three nine-banded armadillos ( Dasypus novemcinctus), one Amazonian armadillo's and 19 clinical isolates were compared by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis with the primer OPG-19. The isolates were divided into three major clusters, I, II and III. Coincidences between human and armadillo isolates were observed in clusters I and II. Cluster III consisted only of armadillos' isolates. The results suggested that (I) humans may acquire P. brasiliensis infection by contact with armadillo's environment, (II) there may be P. brasiliensis genotypes peculiar to the animal, and (III) individual armadillos may be infected with P. brasiliensis cells with different genotypes.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: experimental paracoccidiodomycosis ; gestational interactions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus presenting specific steroid hormone receptors, both in the yeast and mycelial forms and estrogen inhibits the transition from mycelium to yeast. In the acute phase, the disease occurs with equal frequency in both sexes but in adults, females are spared. Placental fungal infection has been reported, but references to fetal infection have not been confirmed. We used 78 Syrian female hamsters divided into 3 groups: GI consisted of 30 infected mated females, GII of 20 infected unmated females and GIII of 28 uninfected mated females. Animals of group I were mated 4 weeks after infection and half of them were submitted to cesarean section on day 15 after successful mating; the other half was maintained and submitted to cesarean section and sacrificed 14 weeks after infection. Half of the animals of group II were sacrificed seven weeks and the other half 14 weeks after infection. Uninfected animals of group III were treated the same as the animals of group I. The animals were infected with strain 18 of P. brasiliensis by the intracardiac route. We evaluated the disease by the volume of granulomas in different organs, number of fungi in liver and spleen and the immunologic responses [ ELISA, Double Immunodifusion ( DID), Delayed Hypersensitivity Skin Test ( DHT) and Macrophage Migration Inhibition ( MMI)]. We studied the infection through the gestation by evaluation of the abortions, morphologic and clinic examinations of the fetuses. Our results showed that the infection did not transfer to the fetus through the placenta, but the number of abortions was larger among infected females. The newborns of GI females were smaller, weighed less and showed little vitality. The disease was more severe and disseminated in infected mated females, especially in the second sacrifice 14 weeks after inoculation, when the total volume of granulomas in them (56.3 mm) was much greater than in the infected unmated females (12 mm).
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. The authors' experience in 27 cases of giant gastric ulcers (craters larger than 3 cm. in diameter) is presented. 2. In 8 patients, the diagnosis of malignancy was made before treatment was begun. Four proved to have malignant ulcers, and the other 4 benign ones. 3. Of the 18 patients submitted to the therapeutic test, 5 healed their lesions after 8 weeks and the remainder after 2 and a half, 5, and 13 months, respectively. 4. The only serious complication was hemorrhage. 5. Pulmonary chronic emphysema was found in 6 patients. 6. The authors believe that the large size of these ulcers is not a criterion of malignancy, and that these giant lesions may heal as well as the smaller ones, although they show an increased tendency to recurrence. 7. The authors emphasize the importance of the so-called “pseudotumoral” gastric ulcer, which roentgenologically and/or gastroscopically, as well as macroscopically, has the appearance of an ulcerated cancer. The benign nature of the lesion is revealed only by histologic study. Four patients were inadvertently submitted to extensive surgery, and 3 died as a result of their operations.
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