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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Physiological and histochemical studies have recently supported the notion that nitric oxide (NO) is the transduction signal responsible for the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic relaxation of the vasculature as well as the airways of the mammalian lung. We report the presence of immunoreactivity to NO synthase (NOS) in nerve cell bodies and nerve fibres in the neural plexus of the buccal cavity and lungs of the frog,Rana temporaria, using the indirect immunocytochemical technique of avidin-biotin and the NADPH-diaphorase technique. The neural ganglia located next to the muscle layer and within the connective tissue of the buccal cavity were partially immunoreactive for NOS. In the lungs, NOS immunoreactivity occurred in nerve cell bodies, as well as in both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibres. Fine nerve fibres immunoreactive to NOS were observed within the muscle fibre bundles and next to the respiratory epithelium. Both the presence of NOS immunoreactivity and the positive histochemical reaction for NADPH-diaphorase in the neural plexus of amphibian respiratory tract suggests a broad evolutionary role for NO as a peripheral neurotransmitter.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Physiological and histochemical studies have recently supported the notion that nitric oxide (NO) is the transduction signal responsible for the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic relaxation of the vasculature as well as the airways of the mammalian lung. We report the presence of immunoreactivity to NO synthase (NOS) in nerve cell bodies and nerve fibres in the neural plexus of the buccal cavity and lungs of the frog, Rana temporaria, using the indirect immunocytochemical technique of avidin-biotin and the NADPH-diaphorase technique. The neural ganglia located next to the muscle layer and within the connective tissue of the buccal cavity were partially immunoreactive for NOS. In the lungs, NOS immunoreactivity occurred in nerve cell bodies, as well as in both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibres. Fine nerve fibres immunoreactive to NOS were observed within the muscle fibre bundles and next to the respiratory epithelium. Both the presence of NOS immunoreactivity and the positive histochemical reaction for NADPH-diaphorase in the neural plexus of amphibian respiratory tract suggests a broad evolutionary role for NO as a peripheral neurotransmitter.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Excretory system ; Exocrine cells ; ACTH-like immunoreactivity ; α-MSH-like immunoreactivity ; 7B2-like immunoreactivity ; Locusta migratoria, Schistocerca gregaria (Insecta)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A novel secretory cell type in the initial segment of the Malpighian tubules of the locusts Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria is described ultrastructurally and studied by means of immunocytochemical techniques. The cells show abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum with interspersed Golgi zones. The richness of the cell secretory machinery and the presence of apical dense plemorphic granules suggest a role in secretion of proteinaceous material to the tubule lumen. The surprising finding of ACTH (1–24)-, α-MSH-, and 7B2-like immunoreactivity for this cell is discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Pancreas, endocrine ; Larval development ; Serial thin/semithin sections ; Immunocytochemistry ; Rana temporaria (Anura)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pancreatic endocrine component was studied at different stages of development in the tadpoles of Rana temporaria. The material was embedded in Epon, and serial semithin and thin sections were made in order to correlate ultrastructural features and tinctorial traits of the endocrine cells. Serial semithin sections were also stained with the peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemical method and with silver impregnations for argyrophilia and argentaffinity. In early larvae (legless tadpoles), A and B cells are present. Both can be found within ducts and exocrine tissue or, more frequently, in cellular clusters among the ducts and acini. These primitive islets are solid structures, surrounded but not penetrated by capillaries. Mitoses were observed in A and B cells. In the following phase (tadpoles with hindlegs), D and pancreatic polypeptide-immunoreactive cells are also present, as well as numerous endocrine cells scattered among exocrine tissue. There is also a change in the vascular-insular pattern: capillaries not only surround but also penetrate the endocrine group. The structure of the endocrine pancreas in older tadpoles is similar. Tinctorial traits and ultrastructural features of endocrine cells are described, and the origin of primitive islets is discussed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Lung ; Endocrine cells ; Calcitonin generalated peptide ; Bromodeoxyuridine ; Differentiation ; Proliferation ; Hypoxia ; Rat (Wistar)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have tested the suggestion that the reported increase, in hypoxic rats, in the number of lung endocrine cells immunoreactive for the regulatory peptide CGRP is caused by an accumulation of peptide within the cells which renders them more detectable, rather than by a real increase in proliferation. The incorporation of continuously infused 5′-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into nuclei of CGRP-containing cells was studied by immunohistochemistry in the airway and respiratory epithelium of rats kept in a hypoxic (10% O2), normobaric conditions for 7 days and in normoxic, normobaric controls. Some CGRP-immunoreactive cells could also be labelled for BrdU. However, the ratio of the number of cells labelled with both CGRP and BrdU to the number of cells labelled with CGRP alone did not differ significantly between hypoxic and normoxic rats (7.1±0.7 and 6.1±1.2, respectively; mean±SEM; P=0.49). These data strongly suggest that CGRP-containing endocrine cells or their precursors do proliferate in adult rat lung, but that the proliferation is not increased significantly in hypoxia.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Vacuolar ATPase ; Proton pump ; Electrogenic potassium transport ; Marpighian tubules ; Immunocytochemistry ; Formica polyctena (Insecta)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The presence of a vacuolar-type ATPase in Malpighian tubules of the ant Formica polyctena was investigated immunocytochemically, using antibodies to vacuolar ATPases of Manduca sexta midgut and bovine kidney. Specific labelling was observed at the brush border of the epithelium extending along the entire length of the tubules. These findings agree with the current view that a vacuolar ATPase is situated at the apical membrane of Malpighian tubule cells and other insect epithelial cells, being the energizing element of an electrogenic potassium pump. When antibodies were tested on tubules in different secretion conditions prior to fixation, no differences were observed in the distribution of the vacuolar ATPase.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Diuretic hormone ; Endocrine cells ; Midgut ; Malpighian tubules ; Bioassay ; Immunocytochemistry ; Locusta migratoria (Insecta)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. This is an investigation of an endocrine cell type in the midgut of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. This cell type is found in the posterior region of the midgut and is especially common in the ampullae through which Malpighian tubules drain into the gut at the midgut-hindgut junction. Strong Locusta diuretic hormone-like immunoreactivity in these cells was colocalized with FMRFamide- and substance P-like immunoreactivities. At the ultrastructural level, immunoreactivity for Locusta diuretic hormone was found in spherical granules (mean diameter of 450 nm), the contents of which showed variable electron density. Fractionation of a methanolic extract of the ampullae by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of two peaks of Locusta diuretic hormone-like immunoreactive material, both of which stimulate cyclic AMP production by isolated Malpighian tubules. The more hydrophobic material is most likely Locusta diuretic hormone, which has the same retention time when chromatographed under identical conditions.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Immunocytochemistry ; Gut ; Innervation ; Regulatory peptides ; Endocrine cells ; Marthasterias glacialis (Echinodermata)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The endocrine cells of the starfish digestive tract are spindle-shaped, contacting both the lumen and the basiepithelial plexus. Silver impregnation labels the basiepithelial and subcoelomic plexuses as well as these cells. Twenty antisera have been tested using the avidinbiotin method, in order to identify the regulatory substances involved in this system. Endocrine cells and nerves immunoreactive to GFNSALMFamide- (S1), FMRFamide-, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine-(PYY), pancreatic polypeptide- (PP), melanocyte stimulating hormone- (αMSH) and peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase- (PAM) specific antisera have been found in the epithelium. The antibodies against S1, a peptide isolated from the nervous system of a starfish, and αMSH, stain both the basiepithelial plexus and the subcoelomic plexus, but the others react only with nerves in the basiepithelial plexus. Absorption controls show that antibodies for S1 and FMRFamide totally crossreact recognizing the same molecule, possibly S1. The other antibodies do not show cross-reactivity to any of the rest, and thus we conclude that these regulatory peptides are present in starfish. This is the first report of the presence of FMRFamide, PYY, αMSH and PAM in the Echinodermata. Under the electron microscope the endocrine cells exhibit secretory granules, microtubules and mitochondria. Direct contact with the subcoelomic plexus can be observed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Lung ; Neuroepithelial bodies ; Immunocytochemistry ; 7B2 Protein ; Serotonin ; Rana temporaria (Anura)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The neuroendocrine cell population of the lung of Rana temporaria has been studied by means of immunocytochemistry. Serotonin (5HT)- and polypeptide 7B2-immunoreactive neuroepithelial bodies have been observed in the epithelial lining of the lung. 5HT- but not 7B2-immunoreactive isolated endocrine cells have also been observed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Vacuolar ATPase ; Proton pump ; Electrogenic potassium transport ; Malpighian tubules ; Immunocytochemistry ; Formica polyctena (Insecta)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The presence of a vacuolar-type ATPase in Malpighian tubules of the ant Formica polyctena was investigated immunocytochemically, using antibodies to vacuolar ATPases of Manduca sexta midgut and bovine kidney. Specific labelling was observed at the brush border of the epithelium, extending along the entire length of the tubules. These findings agree with the current view that a vacuolar ATPase is situated at the apical membrane of Malpighian tubule cells and other insect epithelial cells, being the energizing element of an electrogenic potassium pump. When antibodies were tested on tubules in different secretion conditions prior to fixation, no differences were observed in the distribution of the vacuolar ATPase.
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