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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 201 (1964), S. 522-523 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Embryos, ranging from 1 mm to more than 20 cm in length, were recovered from donor ewes in the following manner. The cervix was clamped, and sheep serum was injected into the tip of one uterine horn. The serum and embryos were forced round the body of the uterus to a glass tube positioned in the ...
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 262 (1976), S. 329-329 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] PANT and Pandey1 reported that haemoglobin (Hb) type in Binaneri ewes influences the ovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropin (pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin, PMSG). The practical and physiological implications of this finding prompt us to present the results of a study of the relationship ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 31 (1992), S. 287-296 
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Phosphorylation ; Protein synthesis ; Pronuclei ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The nuclear restructuring that occurs between insemination and full pronuclear formation in pig eggs is accompanied by posttranslational changes to specific egg proteins. Sperm penetration begins in vitro at 3 hr postinsemination (hpi). By 5 hr, decondensing sperm heads and anaphase II plates are observed in 50% of eggs, and, by 8 hpi, both male and female pronuclei have formed. Three consistent changes to the pattern of newly synthesised proteins are triggered in this period; they affect the 46K, 25K, and 22K polypeptides. Changes are also triggered in the 180-200K polypeptides and in the 14K polypeptides, but these are highly variable. The same changes in the prefertilization pattern were observed when prelabelled eggs were used and new protein synthesis was suppressed. The first and most abrupt change involves the apparent catabolic elimination of a group of 46K unphosphorylated polypeptides (pl 7.3-6.4), whose synthesis was greatest before germinal vesicle breakdown but declined slowly in the final phase of maturation, then declined precipitously after activation. Ageing (beyond maturation) also leads to the disappearance of these polypeptides. The progressive disappearance of a set of 25K polypeptides and the concomitant appearance of a dominant 22K polypeptide is the most characteristic fertilization-induced modification to porcine egg proteins. These modifications begin within 1 hr of sperm penetration or activation, are specific to the pig, and involve heavily phosphorylated polypeptides (25K, pl 6.7-6.0) whose synthesis is begun in the early metaphase I stage. Dual ([35S] and [32P]) labelling, protein blocking experiments, and use of alkaline phosphatase suggest that dephosphorylation selectively affects these 25K polypeptides and is mainly or wholly responsible for converting them (completely within 6 hr) to a single, new (22K, pl 7.6) species that is positively charged. The 25K/22K polypeptide modification has a close temporal relationship with the formation of the male and female pronuclei.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Corpora lutea ; Ovine ; Regression ; Oestrous cycle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The progesterone concentration, histology, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the corpora lutea of 21 Welsh Mountain sheep between day 10 of the cycle and the following oestrus were studied. In two of the animals the corpora lutea had recently regressed to become corpora albicantia. The progesterone concentrations in the luteal tissue were high from day 10–14; on day 15 the progesterone level had dropped to a very low level in 3 out of 4 animals. From day 12 onwards glycogen accumulated in the lutein cells and on day 13 the number of matrical granules in the mitochondria began to increase. The possible significance of these changes is discussed. The first definite structural sign of degeneration of the corpus luteum appeared to be karyorrhexis. Whether or not this occurs before the steroid secretion declines still remains to be determined.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Ovarian follicles (sheep) ; Cumulus ; Membrana granulosa ; Glycogen ; Oestrogen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The cumulus and membrana granulosa of non-atretic ovarian follicles from primordial up to a stage shortly before ovulation were studied by electron microscopy. The follicular cells of primordial follicles were undifferentiated and rested on a thick basal lamina. In secondary follicles the endoplasmic reticulum had proliferated forming an anastomosing network. In early antral and antral follicles (0.5–2.0 mm dia.) the ER was composed of short cisternae, the mitochondria had elongated and gap junctions were first observed. In late antral follicles (3.0–5.9 mm dia.) gap junctions were frequent. In the cumulus the glycogen was associated with electron lucent areas whereas in the granulosa it was invariably associated with membranes. In large antral follicles large membrane bound bodies were present in the basal cells of the cumulus. At early oestrus a distinctive mitochondrial morphology was noted in the granulosa but not elsewhere in the follicles. At mid oestrus numerous annular nexuses were present in the granulosa but not in the cumulus. At late oestrus numerous lipid droplets were formed in both cumulus and granulosa, the boundary with theca interna became indistinct and the basal lamina became incomplete.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Graafian follicle (sheep) ; Atresia ; Ovum ; Capillaries ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The structural changes that characterize primary, secondary and tertiary atresia in sheep Graafian follicles have been studied by means of histological, histochemical and ultrastructural techniques. In primary atresia vacuoles representing swollen endoplasmic reticulum are prominent along the antral border together with disorganized granulosa cells containing pyknotic nuclei. Phagocytic cells, which increase in number as atresia progresses, were seen within the membrana granulosa and are considered to be transformed granulosa cells. Even in follicles classified as nonatretic, a few antral vacuoles and occasional pyknotic nuclei are present. During secondary atresia there is a large increase in the number of cells with pyknotic nuclei; many of these nuclei had been extruded and had fused to form the characteristic Feulgen-positive atretic bodies found along the edge of the antral cavity. These bodies usually have a diameter of up to 15 μm but occasionally reached as much as 400 μm. A second area of degeneration is frequently present in the membrana granulosa, two or three cell layers from the basal lamina, and it is at this level that exfoliation of granulosa cells occurs in tertiary atresia. In contrast to the membrana granulosa, there are during secondary atresia, only slight indications of degeneration in the cumulus. In tertiary atresia the membrana granulosa is highly disorganized; the atretic bodies are often fewer in number than at earlier stages. The basal lamina remains essentially intact. It is at this stage that the first clear signs of degeneration occur in the theca interna. Despite some disintegration of the cumulus, the integrity of the oocyte is maintained and its nucleus remains vesicular. Changes in the thecal microcirculation may play a key role in atresia: adjacent to the basal lamina of non-atretic follicles, there is a well-developed capillary network which is significantly reduced as atresia progresses.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 26 (1990), S. 377-382 
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Oocyte ; Fertilization ; IVF ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The consequences of interactions between porcine sperm, eggs, and oviduct cells before and during fertilization in vitro (IVF) has been examined with particular reference to the block to polyspermy. The pattern of polypeptides secreted by porcine oviduct epithelial cells has been determined and its effects on sperm both during pre-fertilization co-culture and during fertilization have been examined. In standard IVF procedures with no oviduct cell involvement, high rates of penetration (91%) were accompanied by equally high rates of multiple sperm penetration (91% of penetrated eggs). Fertilization on oviduct cell monolayers or a combination of 1 h co-culture of sperm and oviduct cells before the addition of in vitro matured oocytes did not reduce polyspermy. However, a sperm-oviduct cell co-culture period of 2.5 h followed by IVF on oviduct cells selectively reduced the rate of polyspermy by 40% and 50% in two separate series of trials (United Kingdom and Japan, respectively): Overall fertilization rates after this treatment were high (95% or 84%, respectively). A 3.5 h period of pre-fertilization co-culture further reduced polyspermy to only 14% of penetrated eggs, but this treatment was accompanied by a sharp drop in the fertilization rate from an overall mean of 88% for all other groups to 19% after 3.5 h co-culture.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Checkpoints ; H1 kinase ; Bovine ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Bovine oocytes were irradiated at germinal vesicle (GV) or metaphase II (MI) stage, after Hoechst staining, with chromosomally focused UV-C (254 nm) or UV-A (〉 330 nm). UV-C irradiation at GV stage did not inhibit germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) or chromosomal condensation; spindle formation was abolished and maturation promoting factor (MPF) levels failed to increase. UV-A irradiation at GV stage caused meiotic arrest at anaphase I; MPF levels were lower than control. UV-C irradiation at MII stage led to subsequent abnormal parthenogenetic activation when MPF levels failed to decrease. A normal male but no female pronucleus was formed at fertilization. UV-A irradiation at MII stage also caused abnormal activation; MPF levels declined normally. A normal male and abnormal female pronucleus formed at fertilization. UV-A irradiation results have implications for oocyte evaluation during development using Hoechst staining. UV-C irradiation is a potential means for oocyte enucleation in nuclear transfer. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 177 (1973), S. 485-501 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Light and electron microscopic examination of tissues fixed in situ by perfusion of the gravid horn of the uteri of mares between 36 and 38 days of gestation revealed that the equine endometrial cups are composed of trophoblast cells which originate from the discrete annulate portion of the foetal membranes known as the chorionic girdle. This structure consists of closely opposed villous projections of elongated trophoblast cells and it becomes firmly attached to the endometrium around the thirty-sixth day of pregnancy. The specialized girdle cells invade and phagocytose the endometrial epithelium and then migrate through the basal lamina into the endometrial stroma where they develop into endometrial cup cells.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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