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  • 1
    Keywords: ALU REPEATS, chimeric gene, DISEASE, DISEASES, DISORDERS, DNA-SEQUENCES, DUPLICATION, EVOLUTION, EXP
    Abstract: Segmental duplications (SDs) play a key role in genome evolution by providing material for gene diversification and creation of variant or novel functions. They also mediate recombinations, resulting in microdeletions, which have occasionally been associated with human genetic diseases. Here, we present a detailed analysis of a large genomic region (about 240 kb), located on human chromosome 1q22, that contains a tandem SD, SD1q22. This duplication occurred about 37 million years ago in a lineage leading to anthropoid primates, after their separation from prosimians but before the Old and New World monkey split. We reconstructed the hypothetical unduplicated ancestral locus and compared it with the extant SDI q22 region. Our data demonstrate that, as a consequence of the duplication, new anthropoid-specific genetic material has evolved in the resulting paralogous segments. We describe the emergence of two new genes, whose new functions could contribute to the speciation of anthropoid primates. Moreover, we provide detailed information regarding structure and evolution of the SD1q22 region that is a prerequisite for future studies of its anthropoid-specific functions and possible linkage to human genetic disorders. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16545939
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; INHIBITOR ; proliferation ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; KINASE ; INFORMATION ; TOOL ; DISEASE ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; transcription ; TUMORS ; RESOLUTION ; ACTIVATION ; DNA ; BIOLOGY ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; ASSOCIATION ; MOUSE ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROGRESSION ; ASSAY ; microarrays ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; STRATEGIES ; DNA-REPLICATION ; REPLICATION ; signaling ; RE ; TUMORIGENICITY ; genomics ; TRANSITION ; DNA replication ; C-ELEGANS ; cell proliferation ; PROTEIN-ANALYSIS ; development ; ASSAYS ; DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ; high throughput ; HIGH-THROUGHPUT ; LONG ; PRIME ; PRINCIPLES ; REPRESSOR ; ROLES
    Abstract: Cancer transcription microarray studies commonly deliver long lists of "candidate" genes that are putatively associated with the respective disease. For many of these genes, no functional information, even less their relevance in pathologic conditions, is established as they were identified in large-scale genomics approaches. Strategies and tools are thus needed to distinguish genes and proteins with mere tumor association from those causally related to cancer. Here, we describe a functional profiling approach, where we analyzed 103 previously uncharacterized genes in cancer relevant assays that probed their effects on DNA replication (cell proliferation). The genes had previously been identified as differentially expressed in genome-wide microarray studies of tumors. Using an automated high-throughput assay with single-cell resolution, we discovered seven activators and nine repressors of DNA replication. These were further characterized for effects on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling (G(1)-S transition) and anchorage-independent growth (tumorigenicity). One activator and one inhibitor protein of ERK1/2 activation and three repressors of anchorage-independent growth were identified. Data from tumor and functional profiling make these proteins novel prime candidates for further in-depth study of their roles in cancer development and progression. We have established a novel functional profiling strategy that links genomics to cell biology and showed its potential for discerning cancer relevant modulators of the cell cycle in the candidate lists from microarray studies
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16140941
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