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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: salbutamol ; sublingual ; oral ; inhaled ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Administration of drugs by the sublingual route provides rapid systemic absorption and avoids first-pass metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to assess the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and adverse effects of standard salbutamol tablets given by this route to patients with asthma. Seven asthmatic patients were given either sublingual salbutamol tablet 2 mg (SL), swallowed tablet 2 mg (O), metered dose inhaler 200 µg (MDI) or placebo (PL), in a randomized single-blind cross-over design. Airways responses (FEV1, FVC, PEFR), finger tremor (Tr), heart rate (HR), plasma potassium (K) and plasma salbutamol were measured over a 6 h period following drug administration. There were highly significant changes in FEV1 with MDI, O and SL routes compared with PL, although the response to MDI was greater and more rapid than with O or SL. There were similar findings for FVC and PEFR responses. There were no adverse effects with MDI, whereas both 0 and SL produced significant tremor responses. There were no differences between O and SL for any of the pharmacodynamic parameters. In addition, pharmacokinetic profiles for O and SL were also similar apart from an initial delay in absorption with SL. There were however, no significant differences in any of the pharmacokinetic parameters, between O and SL. This suggests that buccal absorption of salbutamol was negligible, and that systemic absorption occurred after swallowing of the dissolved sublingual tablet. These results show that sublingual administration of salbutamol tablet has no clinical benefit over the oral route.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Drugs ; prescribed ; children ; adults ; surveyed
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The drugs prescribed for children in Tayside hospitals in 1974 and 1975 were surveyed using the computer files of over 4000 children in each year. The results were compared with similar data on adult patients. Although similar proportions of both age groups received drugs, less than 3 drugs were prescribed for the great majority of the children (mean 2.5) compared with twice that number for adults. Seven classes of drugs accounted for almost four-fifths of the drugs prescribed for children but the same classes formed two-fifths only of the total drug use in adults. There was significantly greater use of antihistamine/sedative, anticonvulsant and decongestant/mucolytic drugs in children than in adults while the reverse was true for diuretics, KCl, cardioactive agents, sedatives/hypnotics, and tranquillisers. Antimicrobial drugs accounted for approximately one-third of the total drugs used in children and one half of all patients received at least one drug from this class. Penicillin preparations alone accounted for 65.1 per cent of all antimicrobial drug use. The percentage of children given ampicillin fell by almost half from 1974 to 1975 with a corresponding increase in the proportion receiving amoxycillin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Atrial natriuretic factor ; Cyclosporin A ; heart transplantation ; renal function
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mechanism(s) causing high levels of plasma atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in cardiac allograft recipients is(are) unclear. The kidney is important for the clearance of ANF and renal function may decline with cyclosporin A therapy in these patients. The relationship between plasma ANF level and renal function and also the pharmacokinetics of a continuous infusion of ANF (15.5 ng·kg−1·min−1 for 60 min) was examined in 6 cardiac allograft recipients on cyclosporin A therapy. Resting plasma ANF levels were significantly higher in these patients than in 8 healthy subjects (71 vs. 21 ng·l−1). Both effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were significantly lower in these patients than in healthy subjects (215 vs. 617 ml·min−1 and 55 vs. 102 ml·min−1 respectively). There was a significant inverse correlation between plasma ANF and ERPF (r=-0.86) and between plasma ANF and GFR (r=-0.81). During the period of ANF infusion, steady state plasma ANF levels were significantly higher in cardiac allograft recipients. Total body clearance of ANF was marginally lower in these patients than in healthy subjects (60 vs. 10.0 l·min−1) although this difference did not reach statistical significance. Derived endogenous secretion rate of ANF was threefold higher in patients when compared to healthy subjects (633 vs. 208 ng·min−1). We have therefore shown that cardiac allograft recipients on cyclosporin A have elevated plasma ANF levels and also decreased renal function. Pharmacokinetic analysis have shown that this increase in plasma ANF levels is due more to increased ANF secretion than to decreased ANF clearance in these patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0093-691X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1437-160X
    Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis ; Immune complexes ; Fibronectin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fibronectin is involved in the opsonic clearance of particulate material. It is present in plasma and synovial fluid and thus might be expected to have a role in the clearance of immune complexes. We have investigated this in a study of polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitable material from the serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and other connective tissue disorders. Fibronectin is a significant component of PEG precipitates but the amount present is influenced by the method of preparation: more precipitates at 4°C than at 20°C. Fibronectin precipitation by PEG was considered to be related to immune complexes because: (a) there was no direct relationship between serum fibronectin levels and the amount present in PEG precipitates; (b) radiolabelled purified isolated fibronectin did not precipitate in 4% PEG; (c) there was a direct relationship between the amount of fibronectin in PEG precipitates and the amounts of immunoglobulin G, A, and M. These results indicate that fibronectin is involved in immune complexes in rheumatic diseases, though they do not show it has an important biological role in these circumstances.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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