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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Genomic DNA from a large panel of inbred strains of mice were hybridized sequentially with 15 Vα, 2 Vδ, 1 Cα, and 1 Cδ probes. Most of the Vα probes detected a high degree of plymorphism and have allowed the definition of five mouse T-cell receptor α (Tcr α) haplotypes. One of these haplotypes (Tcr α e ) appears to arise from a recombination between theTcr α b andTcr α a haplotypes, the latter being the most frequently found in the conventional inbred strains. This recombination event clearly indicates that the members of at least 11 Vα subfamilies are not closely linked but highly interspersed with one another on chromosome 14.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Genetic and structural analyses of the mouse genes encoding constant region of immunoglobulin subclasses (Igh-C) have shown that recombination is rare within this cluster which is inherited as a set designated the Igh haplotype. Recent molecular analyses have demonstrated that either DNA exchanges or gene duplications have probably occurred during the evolution of this set of genes. In order to assess the generality of the duplication processes, the presence and expression of two allelic forms of the Igh-1 (γ2a) gene (Igh-1 a and Igh-1 b) were examined in a large panel of wild mice belonging to Mus musculus domesticus and Mus musculus musculus species. Our data indicate that certain M. m. domesticus animals and most animals in the M. m. musculus group coexpress the two allelic forms of Igh-1. Moreover, genetic studies show that these two immunoglobulin types are encoded by tandemly arranged genes. We propose that wild mice, from which laboratory mice are derived, carry three isotypic γ2 genes (Igh-1 a, Igh-1b, Igh-3), and these have given rise to the two isotypes seen in laboratory strains by a deletion/insertion mechanism.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Genomic DNA from twelve laboratory mouse strains, in addition to 21 wild-derived strains belonging to different taxa (Mus musculus domesticus, Mus musculus musculus, Mus spretus, Mus macedonicus, a and Mus spicilegus) and four mouse strains that are evolutionarily more distant, were analyzed by Southern blot for polymorphism of the Ig heavy chain constant region γ isotype (Igh-Cγ) and for the distribution of the duplicated Igh-1 (Cγ2α) haplotype. Distinct allelic forms of each Igh-C locus could be defined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). In laboratory mouse strains RFLP proved to be more sensitive in the detection of Igh-4 (Cγ1) alleles than serological methods. Taq I digestion allowed the definition of two alleles in the Igh-8 (Cγ3) locus, which is absolutely conserved at the protein levels. More extensive RFLP could be found in wild strains belonging to the subgenus Mus and in the evolutionarily more distant Mus species belonging to other subgenera. In previous studies we have shown that the Igh-1 locus is duplicated in M. m. musculus subspecies. We now extend this observations to the wild mouse strains belonging to M. spicilegus and M. macedonicus species and to the evolutionarily more distant wild mouse strain Mus pahari (subgenus coelomys), which is thought to have diverged from domestic mice about 5 million years ago. In addition, we found a similar RFLP pattern in ten of 18 wild mice trapped in India, suggesting that the haplotype containing the two Igh-1-like genes, organized in tandem as distinct isotypes, is widely spread in natural populations. The evolution of murine Igh-Cγ-encoded isotypes is also discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-4632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Hypersensitivity dermatoses are common in human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) patients, particularly as the disease progresses. Studies have shown that a switch to T-helper 2 (Th2) might represent a turning point in HIV. This study investigated whether increases in the number of skin mast cells, immunoglobulin E (IgE) serum levels, and eosinophilia, involved in the Th2 response in allergic disease, might also be present in HIV+ patients. If so, these alterations might explain one of the mechanisms of skin hypersensitivity in these patients. Methods Forty-five skin biopsies from the normal skin of the upper arm of HIV+ patients and 15 controls were included in the study. HIV+ individuals were classified into three equal categories according to their immunologic status: Category I (〈 200/μL), Category II (200–499/μL), and Category III (〉 500/μL). Anti-tryptase antibody was employed in tissue sections to show mast cells; IgE serum levels and eosinophils in peripheral blood count were investigated; delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin tests (candidin, trichophytin, and PPD 2U) were evaluated. Results Normal cutaneous mast cell and eosinophil counts were the same in all categories and in the control group, but increased IgE levels (P 〈 0.01) and DTH skin test anergy (P 〈 0.006) were observed among acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Conclusions The density of skin mast cells in HIV infection was not modified in the course of the disease. Mast cells do not seem to be primarily responsible for triggering hypersensitivity dermatoses among AIDS patients, although data in support of the Th2 response, as seen in increased IgE serum levels and DTH anergy, are present.
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