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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Neuromedin U (NMU) has been associated with the regulation of food-intake and energy balance in rats. The objective of this study was to identify the sites of gene expression for NMU and the NMU receptor-2 (NMU2R) in the mouse and rat hypothalamus and ascertain the effects of nutritional status on the expression of these genes. In situ hybridization studies revealed that NMU is expressed in several regions of the mouse hypothalamus associated with the regulation of energy balance. Analysis of NMU expression in the obese ob/ob mouse revealed that NMU mRNA levels were elevated in the dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH) nucleus of obese ob/ob mice compared to lean litter-mates. In addition, NMU mRNA levels were elevated in the DMH of mice fasted for 24 h relative to ad libitum fed controls. The pattern of expression of NMU and NMU2R were more widespread in the hypothalamus of mice than rats. These data provide the first detailed anatomical analysis of the NMU and NMU2R expression in the mouse and advance our knowledge of expression in the rat. The data from the obese rodent models supports the hypothesis that NMU is involved in the regulation of nutritional status.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Melatonin ; receptors ; in vitro ; autoradiography ; brain ; pituitary
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The influence of melatonin on circadian and photoperiodic functions in numerous species is well documented. It is known that the effect of melatonin on circadian rhythmicity is mediated via the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the biological clock of the brain. It is not known however where the photoperiodic effects of melatonin are mediated. Evidence from brain lesioning and melatonin implant studies point to a site in or near the medial hypothalamus. In contrast to these studies, melatonin receptors have been reported in widespread areas of the brain, the pituitary and in peripheral tissues. The characteristics of the reported melatonin receptors vary widely between studies and consequently no definitive description of a physiologically relevant melatonin receptor has received universal recognition. This review marshals recent evidence for the localization and characterization of the melatonin receptor and discusses these findings in the context of the known effects of the hormone in different species.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of comparative physiology 151 (1983), S. 175-183 
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The use of conventional microelectrodes has revealed that the basal membrane potential (Emb) and the transepithelial potential (Tm) inLocusta Malpighian tubules are −39.4 mV and +4.4 mV respectively. No change in Emb was noted after stimulation by diuretic hormone (DH) or cAMP (5 mM), suggesting electroneutral coupling of ions entering the cell. Intracellular concentrations of potassium and chloride measured by ion selective microelectrodes (ISMs) are 95 mM and 51 mM respectively, and intraluminal potassium measured by direct impalement using ISMs is 139 mM. Luminal sodium and chloride concentrations, measured indirectly, by ISMs in the secreted fluid, are 20 mM and 203 mM respectively in unstimulated tubules. Using the data for the electrical and chemical gradients it has been possible to speculate how the different ions enter and exitLocusta tubule cells. A hypothetical model has been formulated in which it is suggested that K+ and Na+ can enter across the basal membrane passively but require an energy dependent mechanism to exit across the apical membrane. Conversely Cl− must enter by an energy dependent mechanism but can exit down a favourable electrical gradient.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The VLBI data, analysed at the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), were obtained in the MERIT short campaign and from the NGS's project POLARIS3. The MERIT data, collected during two 1-week observing sessions in September and October 1980, resulted from observations of up to five antennas operating ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1520-4804
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Macromolecules 23 (1990), S. 4461-4464 
    ISSN: 1520-5835
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 50 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Static and superfused pineal slices (750 μm) have been used to study the control of melatonin synthesis by ovine pineals. Static incubates show a time-dependent accumulation of melatonin in the medium; this is significantly increased by stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) (10−5M), reaching 300% above control levels after 4 h. Perifused pineal slices show a rapid rise in melatonin release within 12–18 min in response to NE stimulation. This reaches a 3.5–4.5-fold increase in melatonin released within 30 min. Withdrawal of NE is associated with a rapid return to prestimulated levels within 12–18 min. These time-course characteristics compare favorably to those changes seen in vivo. The formation of [14C]melatonin from [14C]-tryptophan shows a linear increase with time. In the presence of NE (10−5M), the rate of synthesis is increased, albeit after an initial time lag of at least 30 min. The latter may reflect an N-acetyltransferase-independent mechanism of synthesis and release. In static incubations, propranolol (10−5M) inhibited NE-induced melatonin production by about 60%. but prazosin (10−5M) had no effect. As dibutyryl cyclic AMP (10−3M) stimulated melatonin production, it is concluded that β-receptors are of primary importance to the control of melatonin production, as in the rat. The role of α1-receptors is less clear, but the stimulatory action of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate on melatonin release implicates a receptor linked to phosphatidylinositol turnover.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study demonstrates the presence of two prolactin-releasing (PR) factors in media conditioned by primary pars tuberalis cells prepared from dispersed pars tuberalis tissue. One factor was identified as thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on the basis of immunoreactivity and following purification by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The origin of TRH in the pars tuberalis conditioned media was investigated by measuring the expression of glutaminyl-cyclase (QC) by in situ hybridization. QC expression was not detected in pars tuberalis-specific cells, but was relatively abundant in cells in the pars distalis and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. These data suggest that TRH is not synthesized by the ovine pars tuberalis and more likely originated from the hypothalamic neuronal processes from the paraventricular nucleus that terminate in the median eminence. The second component of the conditioned media PR bioactivity was insensitive to the TRH-antiserum, less than 1 kDa and was not retained by the C18 reverse-phase column. The biosynthesis of the PR bioactivity by pars tuberalis cells was investigated using cycloheximide, forskolin and melatonin. Cycloheximide reduced the level of PR bioactivity produced by the pars tuberalis cells. Melatonin inhibited the increased level of PR bioactivity stimulated by forskolin. Collectively, these data demonstrate the synthesis of at least one regulator of prolactin secretion by ovine pars tuberalis-specific cells.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Melatonin regulates circadian and seasonal physiology via melatonin receptors expressed in the brain. However, little is known about the signal transduction mechanisms that mediate the action of melatonin in neuronal cells. To begin to address this issue, we expressed the human MT1 receptor in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. In this cell line, melatonin acutely stimulated cAMP synthesis through a calcium-calmodulin dependent pathway. This stimulatory effect was independent of an interaction with Gi or Gs G proteins and dependent upon internal calcium stores. Melatonin also potentiated forskolin-activated cAMP synthesis. Differentiation of the neuroblastoma cells with retinoic acid to the neuronal phenotype did not alter the ability of melatonin to acutely stimulate cAMP. These data may be relevant to the neuronal action of melatonin and highlight the importance of the cellular context of expression of melatonin and other G protein-coupled receptors.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The cocaine-amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) encodes for a protein which has an important role in the regulation of appetite and body weight. To date, no details of the molecular events and signal transduction pathways which regulate this gene are available. We report the identification of CART gene expression in the GH3 pituitary cell line. We have used activators of the cAMP or protein kinase C (PKC) signal transduction pathways to show that, in GH3 cells, CART is transcriptionally up-regulated by activators of the cAMP signal transduction pathway. We also identify CART gene expression in ovine pars tuberalis (PT) tissue and primary cell cultures. In PT cells in contrast to GH3 cells, CART gene expression is upregulated by activators of the PKC signal transduction pathway. Cultured cells have provided a valuable resource for the detailed analysis of specific regulatory mechanisms underlying transcriptional or translational regulation of genes, signal transduction events and many other cellular processes. GH3 and PT cells may therefore provide a resource for the further detailed molecular analysis of the events regulating CART gene expression and processing.
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