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  • 1
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] The rapid accumulation of microarray data translates into a need for methods to effectively integrate data generated with different platforms. Here we introduce an approach, 2nd-order expression analysis, that addresses this challenge by first extracting expression patterns as meta-information from ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In recent studies of transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it has been reported that antibodies to aged beta amyloid peptide 1–42 (Aβ1−42) solutions (mixtures of Aβ monomers, oligomers and amyloid fibrils) cause conspicuous reduction of amyloid plaques and neurological improvement. In some cases, however, neurological improvement has been independent of obvious plaque reduction, and it has been suggested that immunization might neutralize soluble, non-fibrillar forms of Aβ. It is now known that Aβ toxicity resides not only in fibrils, but also in soluble protofibrils and oligomers. The current study has investigated the immune response to low doses of Aβ1−42 oligomers and the characteristics of the antibodies they induce. Rabbits that were injected with Aβ1−42 solutions containing only monomers and oligomers produced antibodies that preferentially bound to assembled forms of Aβ in immunoblots and in physiological solutions. The antibodies have proven useful for assays that can detect inhibitors of oligomer formation, for immunofluorescence localization of cell-attached oligomers to receptor-like puncta, and for immunoblots that show the presence of SDS-stable oligomers in Alzheimer's brain tissue. The antibodies, moreover, were found to neutralize the toxicity of soluble oligomers in cell culture. Results support the hypothesis that immunizations of transgenic mice derive therapeutic benefit from the immuno-neutralization of soluble Aβ-derived toxins. Analogous immuno-neutralization of oligomers in humans may be a key in AD vaccines.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The first component of the classic complement cascade, C1q, was increased in whole rat brain after lesioning by intraperitoneally injected kainic acid (KA) (20-fold, 3 days after KA) and in the striatum ipsilateral to unilateral decortication (fivefold, 10 days after decortication). C1q was measured after purification by chromatography and electrophoresis. De novo biosynthesis of C1q 3 days after KA was increased 〉10-fold, as measured by the incorporation of [35S]methionine into C1q after incubation of brain slices from KA-treated rats for 2 h. In parallel with these responses, KA induced fivefold increase of C1q bioactivity, as evaluated with C1q-dependent hemolysis. The contribution of C1q from entrapped cerebrovascular blood was evaluated by the effects of perfusion and was minor relative to the increases of C1q in response to KA lesioning. These findings support the hypothesis that the C1q protein detected by immunocytochemistry in senile plaques of Alzheimer brains and in the hippocampus after deafferenting lesions is synthesized by resident brain cells.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: neurodegeneration ; TGF-β ; Alzheimer's disease ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: TGF-β1 mRNA and protein were recently found to increase in animal brains after experimental lesions that cause local deafferentation or neuron death. Elevations of TGF-β1 mRNA after lesions are prominent in microglia but are also observed in neurons and astrocytes. Moreover, TGF-β1 mRNA autoinduces its own mRNA in the brain. These responses provide models for studying the increases of TGF-β1 protein observed in βA/amyloid-containing extracellular plaques of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome (DS) and in brain cells of AIDS victims. Involvement of TGF-β1 in these human brain disorders is discussed in relation to the potent effects of TGF-β1 on wound healing and inflammatory responses in peripheral tissues.We hypothesize that TGF-β1 and possibly other TGF-β peptides have organizing roles in responses to neurodegeneration and brain injury that are similar to those observed in non-neural tissues. Work from many laboratories has shown that activities of TGF-β peptides on brain cells include chemotaxis, modification of extracellular matrix, and regulation of cytoskeletal gene expression and of neurotrophins. Similar activities of the TGF-β's are well established in other tissues.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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