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  • 1
    Abstract: We have identified mutations in the phosphorylase kinase (Phk) beta subunit gene in a male patient with liver glycogenosis caused by Phk deficiency. The patient's DNA has been analyzed for mutations in the genes encoding the alpha L, beta, and gamma TL subunits of Phk, all of which can be responsible for liver glycogenosis, by a strategy primarily based on reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction of blood RNA and complemented by analysis of genomic DNA. His alpha L and gamma TL coding sequences are normal, whereas he is compound-heterozygous for two mutations in the beta subunit gene, PHKB. The first is a splice-site mutation (IVS4 [-2A--〉G]) causing the reading-frame-disrupting deletion of exon 5 in the mRNA from this allele. The second is an Ala117Pro missense mutation, also in exon 5. This is the first missense mutation identified in PHKB, as opposed to nine translation-terminating mutations described to date. It offers an explanation for the unique biochemical phenotype of this patient. In his leukocytes, low Phk activity is measured when tested with the endogenous liver isoform of phosphorylase as the protein substrate, but normal activity is observed when tested with muscle phosphorylase added in vitro. In contrast, Phk activity in his erythrocytes is low with both substrates. The missense mutation may selectively impair the interaction of Phk with one isoform of its substrate protein and may destabilize the enzyme in a cell-type-specific way. This phenotype shares some aspects with X-linked liver glycogenosis subtype 2 (XLG2), a variant of liver Phk deficiency arising from missense mutations in the alpha L subunit gene (PHKA2), but differs from XLG2 in other respects. The present case demonstrates that mutations in Phk genes other than PHKA2 can also be associated with untypically high activity in certain blood cell types. Moreover, it emphasizes that missense mutations in Phk may cause unusual patterns of tissue involvement that would not be predicted a priori from the tissue specificity of expression of the mutated gene sequences.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 9402963
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  • 2
    Abstract: Muscle-specific deficiency of phosphorylase kinase (Phk) causes glycogen storage disease, clinically manifesting in exercise intolerance with early fatiguability, pain, cramps and occasionally myoglobinuria. In two patients and in a mouse mutant with muscle Phk deficiency, mutations were previously found in the muscle isoform of the Phk alpha subunit, encoded by the X-chromosomal PHKA1 gene (MIM # 311870). No mutations have been identified in the muscle isoform of the Phk gamma subunit (PHKG1). In the present study, we determined Q1the structure of the PHKG1 gene and characterized its relationship to several pseudogenes. In six patients with adult- or juvenile-onset muscle glycogenosis and low Phk activity, we then searched for mutations in eight candidate genes. The coding sequences of all six genes that contribute to Phk in muscle were analysed: PHKA1, PHKB, PHKG1, CALM1, CALM2 and CALM3. We also analysed the genes of the muscle isoform of glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM), of a muscle-specific regulatory subunit of the AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKAG3), and the promoter regions of PHKA1, PHKB and PHKG1. Only in one male patient did we find a PHKA1 missense mutation (D299V) that explains the enzyme deficiency. Two patients were heterozygous for single amino-acid replacements in PHKB that are of unclear significance (Q657K and Y770C). No sequence abnormalities were found in the other three patients. If these results can be generalized, only a fraction of cases with muscle glycogenosis and a biochemical diagnosis of low Phk activity are caused by coding, splice-site or promoter mutations in PHKA1, PHKG1 or other Phk subunit genes. Most patients with this diagnosis probably are affected either by elusive mutations of Phk subunit genes or by defects in other, unidentified genes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12825073
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  • 3
    Abstract: Deficiency of glycogen phosphorylase in the liver gives rise to glycogen-storage disease type VI (Hers disease; MIM 232700). We report the identification of the first mutations in PYGL, the gene encoding the liver isoform of glycogen phosphorylase, in three patients with Hers disease. These are two splice-site mutations and two missense mutations. A mutation of the 5' splice-site consensus of intron 14 causes the retention of intron 14 and the utilization of two illegitimate 5' splice sites, whereas a mutation of the 3' splice-site consensus of intron 4 causes the skipping of exon 5. Two missense mutations, N338S and N376K, both cause nonconservative replacements of amino acids that are absolutely conserved even in yeast and bacterial phosphorylases. We also report corrections of the PYGL coding sequence, sequence polymorphisms, and a partial PYGL gene structure with introns in the same positions as in PYGM, the gene of the muscle isoform of phosphorylase. Our findings demonstrate that PYGL mutations cause Hers disease, and they may improve laboratory diagnosis of deficiencies of the liver phosphorylase system.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 9529348
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