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  • 1
    ISSN: 0309-1651
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Keywords: Genetic disease ; Insulin receptor ; Insulin resistance ; Intracellular transport ; Mutagenesis
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Insulin resistance ; insulin receptor ; protein kinase C.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Downregulation of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (IRK) activity yields to impaired insulin signalling and contributes to the pathogenesis of cellular insulin resistance. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by different agents is associated with an inhibition of IRK activity in various cell types. There is evidence that this effect on IRK activity might be mediated through phosphorylation of specific serine residues of the insulin receptor β -subunit. Neither the domains of the IRK where inhibiting serine phosphorylation occurs nor the PKC isoform responsible for IRK inhibition have been identified. PKC consists of a family of at least 12 isoforms. The aim of the present study was to determine which PKC isoform might be capable of IRK inhibition. The human insulin receptor and the PKC isoforms α, β 1, β 2, γ , δ , ɛ , η , θ and ζ were overexpressed in human embryo kidney fibroblasts (HEK 293 cells) in order to answer this question. PKCs were activated by preincubation with the phorbolester (TPA) (10−7 mol/l) following insulin stimulation of the cells. When the IRK was coexpressed with the PKC isoforms β 1 and β 2, a 50 ± 15.7 and 45 ± 10.1 % inhibition of tyrosine autophosphorylation of IRK was observed while coexpression with the other isoforms did not significantly modify IRK autophosphorylation. The data suggest that the PKC isoforms β 1 and β 2 might be candidates for insulin receptor inhibition. [Diabetologia (1997) 40: 863–866]
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Insulin receptor isotypes ; Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; insulin receptor antibody
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The human insulin receptor exists in two isoforms (HIR-A α-subunit 719 amino acids and HIR-B α-subunit 731 amino acids) which are generated by alternative splicing of a small exon and display distinct patterns of tissue-specific expression. Using the polymerase chain reaction we have recently shown that skeletal muscle of non-diabetic individuals contains predominantly mRNA encoding HIR-A while in skeletal muscle derived from subjects with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus similar amounts of each mRNA are expressed. We used a polyclonal antibody which discriminates between HIR-A and HIR-B to assess the isoform expression at the protein level. The antibody showed clearly distinct displacement of insulin binding in skeletal muscle membranes of non-diabetic subjects compared to Type 2 diabetic subjects (displacement of specific 125I-insulin binding: 13 non-diabetic subjects 70.0%±14.34, 12 Type 2 diabetic subjects 32.6%±17.45). A control antibody which does not discriminate between both isoforms showed similar displacement of 125I-insulin in membranes of non-diabetic and Type 2 diabetic subjects. These data suggest that the altered expression of receptor isotype mRNA in the skeletal muscle of Type 2 diabetic subjects leads to an altered receptor isoform pattern in the plasma membrane. While skeletal muscle membranes of non-diabetic subjects contain predominantly HIR-A, membranes of Type 2 diabetic subjects show an increased level of HIR-B in addition to HIR-A.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Key words Zucker rats, skeletal muscle, insulin resistance, glucose transporter (GLUT 1 and GLUT 4), GLUT 4 translocation.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The genetically obese Zucker rat (fa/fa) is an animal model with severe insulin resistance of the skeletal muscle. We investigated whether a defect of insulin-dependent glucose transporter (GLUT 4) translocation might contribute to the pathogenesis of the insulin-resistant state. fa/fa rats, lean controls (Fa/Fa) as well as normal Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with insulin and were killed after 2 or 20 min, respectively. Subcellular fractions were prepared from hind-limb skeletal muscle and were characterized by determination of marker-enzyme activities and immunoblotting applying antibodies against α1 Na+/K+ AT Pase. The relative amounts of GLUT 1 and GLUT 4 were determined in the fractions by immunoblotting with the respective antibodies. Insulin induced an approximately two-fold increase of GLUT 4 in a plasma membrane and transverse tubule enriched fraction and a decrease in the low density enriched membrane fraction in all three groups of rats. There was a high individual variation in GLUT 4 translocation efficiency within the groups. However, no statistically significant difference was noted between the groups. No effect of insulin was detectable on the distribution of GLUT 1 or α1 Na+K+ AT Pase. The data suggest that skeletal muscle insulin resistance of obese Zucker rats is not associated with a lack of GLUT 4 translocation. [Diabetologia (1994) 37: 3–9]
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Zucker rats ; skeletal muscle ; insulin resistance ; glucose transporter (GLUT 1 and GLUT 4) ; GLUT 4 translocation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The genetically obese Zucker rat (fa/fa) is an animal model with severe insulin resistance of the skeletal muscle. We investigated whether a defect of insulin-dependent glucose transporter (GLUT 4) translocation might contribute to the pathogenesis of the insulin-resistant state. fa/fa rats, lean controls (Fa/Fa) as well as normal Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with insulin and were killed after 2 or 20 min, respectively. Subcellular fractions were prepared from-hind-limb skeletal muscle and were characterized by determination of marker-enzyme activities and immunoblotting applying antibodies against α1 Na+/K+ AT Pase. The relative amounts of GLUT 1 and GLUT 4 were determined in the fractions by immunoblotting with the respective antibodies. Insulin induced an approximately two-fold increase of GLUT 4 in a plasma membrane and transverse tubule enriched fraction and a decrease in the low density enriched membrane fraction in all three groups of rats. There was a high individual variation in GLUT 4 translocation efficiency within the groups. However, no statistically significant difference was noted between the groups. No effect of insulin was detectable on the distribution of GLUT 1 or α1 Na+K+ ATPase. The data suggest that skeletal muscle insulin resistance of obese Zucker rats is not associated with a lack of GLUT 4 translocation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Insulin receptor ; skeletal muscle ; proteinkinase C ; non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Insulin resistance of the skeletal muscle plays a key role in the development of the metabolic endocrine syndrome and its further progression to non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM). Available data suggest that insulin resistance is caused by an impaired signal from the insulin receptor to the glucose transport system and to glycogen synthase. The impaired response of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase which is found in NIDDM appears to contribute to the pathogenesis of the signalling defect. The reduced kinase activation is not caused by mutations within the insulin receptor gene. We investigated two potential mechanisms that might be relevant for the abnormal function of the insulin receptor in NIDDM, i.e. changes in the expression of the receptor isoforms and the effect of hyperglycaemia on insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity. The insulin receptor is expressed in two different isoforms (HIRA and HIR-B). We found that HIR-B expression in the skeletal muscle is increased in NIDDM. However, the characterisation of the functional properties of HIR-A and HIR-B revealed no difference in their tyrosine kinase activity in vivo. The increased expression of HIR-B might represent a compensatory event. In contrast, hyperglycaemia might directly inhibit insulin-receptor function. We have found that in rat-1 fibroblasts which overexpressing human insulin receptor an inhibition of the tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor may be induced by high glucose levels. This appears to be mediated through activation of certain protein kinase C isoforms which form stable complexes with the insulin receptor and modulate the tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor through serine phosphorylation of the receptor beta subunit. This mechanism might also be relevant in human skeletal muscle and contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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