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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Barley ; BAC library ; P-loop genes ; Resistance-gene analog (RGA)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Modern cultivated barley is an important cereal crop with an estimated genome size of 5000 Mb. To develop the resources for positional cloning and structural genomic analyses in barley, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the cultivar Morex using the cloning enzyme HindIII. The library contains 313344 clones (816 384-well plates). A random sampling of 504 clones indicated an average insert size of 106 kbp (range=30–195 kbp) and 3.4% empty vectors. Screening the colony filters for chloroplast DNA content indicated an exceptionally low 1.5% contamination with chloroplast DNA. Thus, the library provides 6.3 haploid genome equivalents allowing a 〉99% probability of recovering any specific sequence of interest. High-density filters were gridded robotically using a Genetix Q-BOT in a 4×4 double-spotted array on 22.5-cm2 filters. Each set of 17 filters allows the entire library to be screened with 18432 clones represented per filter. Screening the library with 40 single copy probes identified an average 6.4 clones per probe, with a range of 1–13 clones per probe. A set of resistance-gene analog (RGA) sequences identified 121 RGA-containing BAC clones representing 20 different regions of the genome with an average of 6.1 clones per locus. Additional screening of the library with a P-loop disease resistance primer probe identified 459 positive BAC clones. These data indicate that this library is a valuable resource for structural genomic applications in barley.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Glycine max ; Near-isogenic lines ; Molecular markers ; RFLP ; Linkage ; Genetic map
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A molecular marker analysis of a near-isogenic line (NIL), its donor parent (DP), and its recurrent parent (RP) can provide information about linkages between molecular markers and a conventional marker introgressed into the NIL. If the DP and RP possess different alleles for a given molecular marker, and if the NIL possesses the same allele as the DP, then it is reasonable to presume a linkage between that molecular marker and the introgressed marker. In this study, we examined the utility of RFLPs as molecular markers for the NIL genemapping approach. The allelic status of fifteen RFLP loci was determined in 116 soybean RP/NIL/DP line sets; 66 of the ‘Clark’ RP type and 50 of the ‘Harosoy’ RP type. Of the 1740 possible allelic comparisons (116 NILs x 15 RFLP loci), 1638 were tested and 462 (33.9%) of those were informative (i.e., the RP and DP had different RFLP alleles). In 15 (3.2%) of these 462 cases the NIL possessed the DP-derived RFLP allele, leading to a presumption of linkage between the RFLP locus and the introgressed conventional marker locus. Two presumptive linkages, pK-3 — and pK-472 — Lf i, were subsequently confirmed by cosegregation linkage analysis. Although not yet confirmed, two other associations, pk-7 ab and pK-229 — y 9 seemed to be plausible linkages, primarily because the pk-7 — ab association was detected in two independently derived NILs and both markers of the pK-229 — y 9 association were known to be linked to Pb. The data obtained in this investigation indicated that RFLP loci were useful molecular markers for the NIL gene-mapping technique.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Fusarium head blight ; Scab ; Kernel discoloration ; Black point ; Kernel blight ; Deoxynivalenol (DON) ; RFLP ; Barley
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB), deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation, and kernel discoloration (KD) in barley are difficult traits to introgress into elite varieties because current screening methods are laborious and disease levels are strongly influenced by environment. To improve breeding strategies directed toward enhancing these traits, we identified genomic regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance to FHB, DON accumulation, and KD in a breeding population of F4:7 lines using restriction fragment length polymorphic (RFLP) markers. We evaluated 101 F4:7 lines, derived from a cross between the cultivar Chevron and an elite breeding line, M69, for each of the traits in three or four environments. We used 94 previously mapped RFLP markers to create a linkage map. Using composite interval mapping, we identified 10, 11, and 4 QTLs associated with resistance to FHB, DON accumulation, and KD, respectively. Markers flanking these QTLs should be useful for introgressing resistance to FHB, DON accumulation, and KD into elite barley cultivars.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Zea mays ; Aspartate kinase Threonine-overproducing mutants ; Lysine ; Methionine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The aspartate-derived amino-acid pathway leads to the production of the essential amino-acids lysine, methionine, threonine and isoleucine. Aspartate kinase (AK) is the first enzyme in this pathway and exists in isoforms that are feedback inhibited by lysine and threonine. Two maize (Zea mays L.) threonine-overproducing, lysine-insensitive AK mutants (Ask1-LT19 and Ask2-LT20) were previously isolated. The present study was conducted to determine the map location of Ask2 and to examine the amino-acid profiles of the Ask mutants. The threonine-overproducing trait conferred by Ask2-LT20 was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 2. Both mutants exhibited increased free threonine concentrations (nmol/mg dry weight) over wild-type. The percent free threonine increased from approximately 2% in wild-type kernels to 37–54% of the total free amino-acid pool in homozygous mutant kernels. Free methionine concentrations also increased significantly in homozygous mutants. Free lysine concentrations were increased but to a much lesser extent than threonine or methionine. In contrast to previous studies, free aspartate concentrations were observed to decrease, indicating a possible limiting factor in threonine synthesis. Total (free plus protein-bound) amino-acid analyses demonstrated a consistent, significant increase in threonine, methionine and lysine concentrations in the homozygous mutants. Significant increases in protein-bound (total minus free) threonine, methionine and lysine were observed in the Ask mutants, indicating adequate protein sinks to incorporate the increased free amino-acid concentrations. Total amino-acid contents (nmol/kernel) were approximately the same for mutant and wild-type kernels. In five inbred lines both Ask mutations conferred the threonine-overproducing phenotype, indicating high expressivity in different genetic backgrounds. These analyses are discussed in the context of the regulation of the aspartate-derived amino-acid pathway.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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