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  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have utilized clonal strains of bovine fetal aortic endothelial cells to study cellular senescence in a differentiated cell type of physiological significance. Serial subcultivation of nine endothelial clones derived from three fetal calf aortas revealed proliferative life-spans in vitro of 53-125 population doublings (PDs), compared with 60 and 143 PDs for two lines of bovine fetal lung cells and 85 and 147 PDs for two lines of bovine vascular smooth muscle cells. Serial growth curves showed marked reductions associated with endothelial cellular senescence both in cellular growth rate and culture plateau density. Studies of the 24-hour [3H]-thymidine labeling index versus percentage of proliferative life-span completed indicated that clonal endothelial cultures contained a large proportion (greater than 90%) of rapidly cycling cells until about 75% of the life-spans were completed. Senescent endothelial cells showed evidence of large increases in cell area, cell volume, and protein content. In those clones examined, one specialized endothelial function, Factor VIII antigen expression, was retained qualitatively throughout the life-spans.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 114 (1983), S. 328-338 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A cloned strain of bovine vascular endothelial cells with a finite in vitro lifespan was treated with benzo(a)pyrene (BP) after approximately 75% of its lifespan was completed. Untreated cultures of this strain senesced upon serial subcultivation and contained large, nondividing cells. In three out of seven trials, BP treatment produced transformed cells appeared in the cultures concomitant with the senescence of the parent cells. All transformed cell lines examined exhibited indefinite lifespans and altered karyotypes. Two of the lines retained most of the characteristics of normal endothelial cells, except that one became aneuploid and the other polyploid, Neither of these lines formed tumors when inoculated into nude mice. The remaining two lines retained mostly diploid kayotypes, but a high percentage of cells contained Robertsonian translocations. In one line cell volume was markedly reduced. In addition, these lines grew in multilayers, were anchorage independent, and proliferated in medium containing 0.5% serum. When 107 cells of these lines were injected into nude mice, tumors appeared within 1 week and were identified as malignant hemangioendotheliomas of bovine origin.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Bovine fetal aortic endothelial cells cultured in serum-containing medium accumulate angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and also release it into the culture medium. Following subcultivation of a confluent culture using trypsin-EDTA, cellular ACE activity falls 50% within 8 h, but no ACE activity is detected in the medium, suggesting intracellular loss of the enzyme activity. ACE activity reappears in both the cell lysate and culture medium after the culture becomes confluent. The rate of accumulation of ACE activity released into the medium is always greater than that for cellular activity. For example, 21 days following subcultivation 80-85% of the total culture activity is detected in the medium. Both cellular and medium-associated ACE decrease proportionately as the culture progresses through its in vitro lifespan.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was measured in lysates of cloned and uncloned cultures of bovine fetal aortic endothelial cells. The expression of ACE activity in these cells was complex, and influenced by subcultivation, cell density, serum, cumulative population doublings, and clonal heterogeneity. The ACE specific activity at any point in the in vitro lifespan was determined, at least in part, by interaction of these culture variables. After subcultivation to subconfluent densities, cellular ACE specific activity decreased markedly and did not reach detectable levels until cells attained confluent densities. The use of different suppliers' lots of serum in the growth medium resulted in different cellular ACE specific activities. The ACE specific activity decreased as cultures were serially subcultivated, but remained detectable throughout the lifespan, suggesting a linkage between the proliferative history of an endothelial cell and its remaining capacity to express ACE. Increased ACE activity was observed when cells at the end of their lifespan were cultured at high densities. Cloned strains behaved similarly to the uncloned parent culture, except that they exhibited a wide range of ACE specific activities.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cytogenetic evaluation of serially subcultivated human endothelial cells revealed significant differences between cultures derived from fetal umbilical cords and cultures derived from various vessel sites in adults. A rapid increase in the prevalence of polyploid cells, to levels of 100% in many cases, was detected in human umbilical vein endothelial cell cultures but not in endothelial cell cultures from adult vessels. Because the development of polyploidy has been viewed as one signpost of in vitro senescence, it may be that these in vitro observations of high levels of polyploidy are a reflection of the fact that umbilical tissue is at the end of its in vivo developmental lifespan when studied. Consistent karyotypic alterations also were observed in two clones from adult human abdominal aorta, even though these cultures exhibited low percentages of polyploid cells. Cultures of one clone exhibited a trisomy of chromosome 11, on which there are at least three onc gene loci, and a deletion of chromosome 13 through band q14. A loss of band 13q14 is a prezygotic chromosomal lesion known to predispose to retinoblastoma. In the other clone, two cell populations were observed, and each displayed a chromosomal abnormality A trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 2 was noted in one cell population via a marker chromosome involving 2 and 14. The other cell population exhibited an abnormality of chromosome 2. Neither of these karyotypic alterations was detected in the parent culture from which the clones were derived. The results reported in this study have both practical and theoretical implications. The high incidence of polyploidy in serially cultivated umbilical cultures as well as the occurrence of chromosomal changes in umbilical and aortic cultures testify to the need for cytogenetic monitoring of cell cultures even though they are derived from presumably normal tissue. Cytogenetic changes in the endothelium may be important in atherogenesis and other pathologic states. The conversion of diploid endothelial cells into polyploid endothelial cells may provide a convenient model cell system for studying mechanisms of the development of polyploidy in cells and their relationship to in vitro senscence.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The effects of heparin and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on the mitogenicity and stability of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) were studied. The mitogenic activity of aFGF was assayed utilizing cultured adult human endothelial cells (AHECs) isolated from iliac arteries and veins as target cells. In most experiments, aFGF purified from bovine brain was employed; in some experiments recombinant bovine aFGF was used and qualitatively similar results were obtained. In the presence of heparin, bovine aFGF at doses between 0.5 and 1.0 ng/ml (30-60 pM) elicited half the maximum AHEC growth over a 4-day period depending on the cell line tested; in the absence of heparin, significant growth was not observed at aFGF concentrations less than 10-20 ng/ml. This effect of heparin was dose-dependent over the range 0.1-10 μg/ml (half-maximum dose, 2 μg/ml). The mitogenic activity of bovine aFGF for AHECs decreased by 50% after preincubation in culture medium without cells at 37°C for 2 ½ to 3 hours. In contrast, the mitogenic activity of bovine aFGF preincubated in the presence of heparin-containing culture medium without cells was dramatically stabilized (half-life 24-29 hours). These effects also were observed in serum-free medium. Several GAGs structurally related to heparin such as chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid neither potentiated nor stabilized aFGF mitogenic activity. However, heparan sulfate from bovine lung was found to be nearly as active as heparin in both these effects. These data suggest that the binding and stabilization of mitogens by extracellular and tissue-associated heparan sulfates might play important roles in the regulation of AHEC growth.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Karyotypic and phenotypic changes were found in human adult endothelial cells (EC) during aging in vitro. A trisomy of chromosome 11 was found in 11 out of 12 EC cultures examined, derived from 9 cell lines from 8 donors. The incidence of this trisomy in some cell lines increased over time from 0% to as much as 100% near the end of their in vitro life span. A number of oncogenes and other important genes are on chromosome 11. These genes might play a role in the changes observed. An increase in the percentage of polyploid cells was also found near the end of the in vitro life span in 6 lines. The cellular levels of two gene products characteristic of the EC, von Willebrand factor (vWF) or Factor VIII, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) were also monitored. vWf was studied in 2 lines and was decreased in both with serial passage. ACE decreased in three out of the four lines examined. These chromosomal and phenotypic changes which occur with increasing age in vitro make the endothelial cell a suitable model to study in vitro culture-related changes, senescence, cardiovascular disease, and tumorigenesis.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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