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  • 1
    Keywords: TUMOR-CELLS ; INHIBITION ; ACTIVATION ; resistance ; CANCER-CELLS ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; MEDIATED APOPTOSIS ; CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC DRUGS ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA CELLS ; ANTICANCER THERAPY
    Abstract: A meningioma is the most common primary intracranial tumor in adults. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in 37 meningiomas. Freshly isolated primary meningioma cells were treated with TRAIL with or without different sensitizing protocols, and apoptotic cell death was then quantified. Mechanisms of TRAIL sensitization were determined by a combination of Western blotting, flow cytometry, receptor complex immunoprecipitation, and siRNA-mediated knockdown experiments. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and quantified by an automated software-based algorithm. Primary tumor cells from 11 (29.7%) tumor samples were sensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, 12 (32.4%) were intermediate TRAIL resistant, and 14 (37.8%) were completely TRAIL resistant. We tested synergistic apoptosis-inducing cotreatment strategies and determined that only the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib potently enhanced expression of the TRAIL receptors TRAIL-R1 and/or TRAIL-R2, the formation of the TRAIL death-inducing signaling complex, and activation of caspases; this treatment resulted in sensitization of all TRAIL-resistant meningioma samples to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Bortezomib pretreatment induced NOXA expression and downregulated c-FLIP, neither of which caused the TRAIL-sensitizing effect. Native TRAIL receptor expression could not predict primary TRAIL sensitivity. This first report on TRAIL sensitivity of primary meningioma cells demonstrates that TRAIL/bortezomib cotreatment may represent a novel therapeutic option for meningiomas.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25289891
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GENE ; transcription ; CREB ; acetylation ; HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITORS ; SOX4 ; COOPERATE
    Abstract: For differentiation-defective malignancies, compounds that modulate transcription, such as retinoic acid and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are of particular interest. HDAC inhibitors are currently under investigation for the treatment of a broad spectrum of cancer diseases. However, one clinical drawback is class-specific toxicity of unselective inhibitors, limiting their full anticancer potential. Selective targeting of individual HDAC isozymes in defined tumor entities may therefore be an attractive alternative treatment approach. We have previously identified HDAC family member 8 (HDAC8) as a novel target in childhood neuroblastoma. Using small-molecule inhibitors, we now demonstrate that selective inhibition of HDAC8 exhibits antineuroblastoma activity without toxicity in two xenograft mouse models of MYCN oncogene-amplified neuroblastoma. In contrast, the unselective HDAC inhibitor vorinostat was more toxic in the same models. HDAC8-selective inhibition induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Upon combination with retinoic acid, differentiation was significantly enhanced, as demonstrated by elongated neurofilament-positive neurites and upregulation of NTRK1. Additionally, MYCN oncogene expression was downregulated in vitro and tumor cell growth was markedly reduced in vivo. Mechanistic studies suggest that cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) links HDAC8- and retinoic acid-mediated gene transcription. In conclusion, HDAC-selective targeting can be effective in tumors exhibiting HDAC isozyme-dependent tumor growth in vivo and can be combined with differentiation-inducing agents.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25695609
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; microarray ; validation ; PERFORMANCE ; IDENTIFICATION ; UNKNOWN PRIMARY ; IDENTIFY
    Abstract: Background. Cancers of unknown primary origin (CUP) constitute 3%-5% (50,000 to 70,000 cases) of all newly diagnosed cancers per year in the United States. Including cancers of uncertain primary origin, the total number increases to 12%-15% (180,000 to 220,000 cases) of all newly diagnosed cancers per year in the United States. Cancers of unknown/uncertain primary origins present major diagnostic and clinical challenges because the tumor tissue of origin is crucial for selecting optimal treatment. MicroRNAs are a family of noncoding, regulatory RNA genes involved in carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs that are highly stable in clinical samples and tissue specific serve as ideal biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. Our first-generation assay identified the tumor of origin based on 48 microRNAs measured on a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction platform and differentiated 25 tumor types. Methods. We present here the development and validation of a second-generation assay that identifies 42 tumor types using a custom microarray. A combination of a binary decision-tree and a k-nearest-neighbor classifier was developed to identify the tumor of origin based on the expression of 64 microRNAs. Results. Overall assay sensitivity (positive agreement), measured blindly on a validation set of 509 independent samples, was 85%. The sensitivity reached 90% for cases in which the assay reported a single answer (〉80% of cases). A clinical validation study on 52 true CUP patients showed 88% concordance with the clinicopathological evaluation of the patients. Conclusion. The abilities of the assay to identify 42 tumor types with high accuracy and to maintain the same performance in samples from patients clinically diagnosed with CUP promise improved utility in the diagnosis of cancers of unknown/uncertain primary origins.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22618571
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