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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-11-16
    Description: Aim: Many medical universities rely these days on trained student tutors to enable faculty-wide undergraduate ultrasound training. However, there is neither consensus on an optimal method nor any developed and agreed standard in the training of these student tutors. Usually internships and courses are employed which have both a specific set of advantages and disadvantages. We conducted a prospective quasi-randomized study of assess the effects of three types of tutor training on the resulting improvement in scanning skills of their tutees.Methods: Three batches of student tutors were trained by a course only (C-group), by an internship only (I-group) or by a course and an internship (CI-group). The respective gains in ultrasound scanning skills of the tutees were measured prospectively. A total 75 of the 124 5th year medical students (60.5%) who attended the mandatory ultrasound course completed both pre- and post-exams on a voluntary basis. Within a limit of eight minutes and three images, they were asked to depict and label a maximum of 14 anatomical structures. Two blinded raters independently awarded two points for each label with an identifiable structure and one point for each label with a possibly identifiable structure.Results: In all three groups, the tutees improved significantly by more than doubling their pre-score results and comparably (Gains: C-group 9.19±5.73 points, p〈.0001, I-group 9.77±4.81 points, p〈.0001, CI-group 8.97±5.49 points, p〈.0001).Conclusion: Student tutors, who were trained with a course or an internship or a course and an internship could teach scanning skills to 5th year medical students very effectively and with similar success.
    Description: Ziel: Viele medizinische Universitäten bieten heutzutage mit der Hilfe von ausgebildeten studentischen Tutoren eine fakultätsweite Ultraschall-Grundausbildung an. Es gibt jedoch weder einen Konsens über eine optimale Methode noch einen verbindlichen Standard für die Ausbildung dieser studentischen Tutoren. In der Regel werden zur Ausbildung Praktika und Kurse eingesetzt, die sowohl spezifische Vor- als auch Nachteile aufweisen.Wir führten eine prospektive, quasi-randomisierte Studie durch, um die Auswirkungen von drei Arten von Tutorentraining auf die daraus resultierende Verbesserung der Scanfähigkeiten ihrer Tutees zu bewerten.Methoden: Drei Gruppen studentischer Tutoren wurden nur durch einen Kurs (K-Gruppe), nur durch eine Famulatur (F-Gruppe) oder durch einen Kurs und eine Famulatur (KF-Gruppe) geschult. Die jeweiligen Zuwächse an Scanfähigkeiten der Tutees wurden prospektiv gemessen. 75 der 124 Medizinstudenten im fünften Studienjahr (60,5%), die den curricularen Ultraschallkurs besuchten, haben sowohl den Vor- als auch den Nachtest auf freiwilliger Basis absolviert. Innerhalb von acht Minuten sollten maximal 14 anatomische Strukturen in drei Bildern dargestellt und beschriftet werden. Zwei verblindete Bewerter vergaben unabhängig voneinander zwei Punkte für jede sicher identifizierbare Struktur und einen Punkt für jede möglicherweise identifizierbare Struktur.Ergebnisse: In allen drei Gruppen verbesserten sich die Tutees signifikant, indem sie ihre Ergebnisse von vor dem Unterricht mehr als verdoppelten (Zuwachs: K-Gruppe 9,19±5,73 Punkte, p〈0,0001; F-Gruppe 9,77±4,81 Punkte, p〈0,0001; KF-Gruppe 8,97±5,49 Punkte, p〈0,0001).Fazit: Studentische Tutoren, die mit einem Kurs oder einer Famulatur oder einem Kurs und einer Famulatur geschult wurden, konnten Medizinstudenten im 5. Jahr sehr effektiv und mit vergleichbarem Erfolg Scanfähigkeiten vermitteln.
    Subject(s): medical Student ; ultrasound ; sonography ; student tutor ; Medizinstudent ; Ultraschall ; Sonografie ; Tutor ; ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: article
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Macromolecules 23 (1990), S. 2577-2582 
    ISSN: 1520-5835
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-5835
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Macromolecules 26 (1993), S. 4356-4362 
    ISSN: 1520-5835
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 26 (1954), S. 953-959 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 20 (1948), S. 993-993 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 44 (1987), S. 107-110 
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Subject(s): 42.55 E ; 42.60 D ; 42.60 F
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, we report on a new concept for active mode locking of lasers. It has been successfully applied to a cw waveguide CO2 laser and pulse widths as short as 2 ns have been obtained.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European radiology 9 (1999), S. 998-1004 
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Subject(s): Key words: MR imaging ; Contrast agents ; MR field strength
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The relaxivities r1 and r2 of magnetic resonance contrast agents and the T1 relaxation time values of tissues are strongly field dependent. We present quantitative data and simulations of different gadolinium-based extracellular fluid contrast agents and the modulation of their contrast enhancement by the magnetic field to be able to answer the following questions: How are the dose and field dependences of their contrast enhancement? Is there an interrelationship between dose and field dependence? Should one increase or decrease doses at specific fields? Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion data were acquired for the following contrast agents: gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadoterate meglumine, gadodiamide injection, and gadoteridol injection, as well as for several normal and pathological human tissue samples. The magnetic field range stretched from 0.0002 to 4.7 T, including the entire clinical imaging range. The data acquired were then fitted with the appropriate theoretical models. The combination of the diamagnetic relaxation rates (R1 = 1/T1 and R2 = 1/T2) of tissues with the respective paramagnetic contributions of the contrast agents allowed the prediction of image contrast at any magnetic field. The results revealed a nearly identical field and dose-dependent increase of contrast enhancement induced by these contrast agents within a certain dose range. The target tissue concentration (TTC) was an important though nonlinear factor for enhancement. The currently recommended dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight seems to be a compromise close to the lower limits of diagnostically sufficient contrast enhancement for clinical imaging at all field strengths. At low field contrast enhancement might be insufficient. Adjustment of dose or concentration, or a new class of contrast agents with optimized relaxivity, would be a valuable contribution to a better diagnostic yield of contrast enhancement at all fields.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of clinical pharmacology 45 (1993), S. 261-264 
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Subject(s): Bupranolol ; Debrisoquine ; Sparteine ; CYP2D6 ; Polymorphism ; high affinity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The β-adrenoceptor blocker bupranolol turned out to be a competitive inhibitor of the polymorphic cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 of which sparteine is a substrate. There was stereo-selectivity of bupranolol involved: (−)-bupranolol was the weakest inhibitor with an apparent Ki value of 1.32 μM, (+)-bupranolol was the most potent with an apparent Ki value of 0.55 μM, while the therapeutically used racemic bupranolol had an intermediate value of 0.88 μM. A 10 min pre-incubation of 5 μM bupranolol with the enzyme preparation prior to the addition of substrate, reduced the inhibition of sparteine metabolism from 52 to about 25%. This suggests that — during these inhibition studies — bupranolol was much more rapidly metabolized than was sparteine, so that the measured Ki values must represent overestimates. The enzyme catalysing bupranolol metabolism was CYP2D6: microsomes from a liver with the genetic enzyme deficiency did not metabolize bupranolol; in microsomes from livers containing the enzyme and 10 μM bupranolol, 5 μM quinidine caused a 72% inhibition of bupranolol metabolism. Although our methods were not sufficiently sensitive to measure the Km of bupranolol directly, it is undoubtedly the β-adrenoceptor blocker with the highest-known apparent affinity for CYP2D6. High affinity and rapid metabolism are infrequent combinations in enzymology.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    International journal of cosmetic science 27 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1468-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Application of drug substances to the skin for systemic absorption or action in a particular layer of the skin is a rather old approach. However, over the last years it has received much more attention, as a consequence of the development of new membrane-moderated and matrix reservoir devices. As new reservoir systems, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN™) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC™) have been successfully tested for dermal application of different physicochemical substances. The knowledge obtained from rheological investigations of these systems may be highly useful for the characterization of the newly developed topical formulation. In the present study, an oscillation frequency sweep test was used for the evaluation of storage modulus (G_), loss modulus (G_), and complex viscosity (_*) of 12 different SLN and NLC formulations, over a frequency range from 0 to 10 Hz. The lipidic aqueous dispersions were prepared using three different solid lipids (Softisan_138, Compritol_888 and stearyl alcohol) as matrix material. Miglyol_812, tocopherol, sunflower oil and long-chain triacylglycerols were the chosen liquid lipids for NLC preparation. The objective of the present work was to investigate the effect of these different liquid lipids on the rheological properties of aqueous dispersions of NLC as model systems. It was found that the liquid oil component of the formulation has a strong influence on the viscoelastic parameters, which are dependent on the particle size, zeta potential and crystallinity of the lipid particles, as well as on the solid lipid used.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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