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  • 1
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1569-8041
    Keywords: chemotherapy ; grading ; peripheral neurotoxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Reliable reporting of chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity is important. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the differences in the peripheral neurotoxicity sections of several widely used chemotherapy-related toxicity grading systems, and the differences in the way in which observers interpret these scales. Patients and methods: Two neurologists independently rated the severity of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, according to WHO, ECOG, Ajani, and NCIC-CTC criteria in 37 patients. Results: The highest percentage grade 1, grade 2 and grade 3 peripheral neurotoxicity was noted when employing the WHO, Ajani and NCIC-CTC scales, respectively. Percentage interobserver agreement across all grades of severity ranged from 45.9 (NCIC-CTC) to 83.8 (WHO). The degree of agreement varied from ‘poor to fair’ to ‘substantial’. Percentage interobserver agreement for the dichotomy grade ≤2 and grade 3 ranged from 81.1 (NCIC-CTC) to 94.6 (Ajani and WHO), however, exact agreement on grade 3 peripheral neurotoxicity ranged from 0 (Ajani and WHO) to 42% (NCIC-CTC). Percentage interscale agreement for the dichotomy grade ≤2 and grade 3 varied from 67.6 (WHO and NCIC-CTC) to 100 (WHO and ECOG). Interobserver disagreement of severity grading was partly due to different interpretation of scale parameters. Conclusions: Our results suggest that caution should be used in interpreting results across studies using different scales for neurotoxicity grading in chemotherapy-related peripheral neuropathy. When (multicentre) trials are to be undertaken with potential neurotoxic or neuroprotective agents, consensus should be sought regarding the toxicity rating scale used, and its interpretation by participating physicians.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Sudden infant death ; Home monitoring
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The prevalence of “over-the-counter” monitors, was surveyed in infants referred to five Belgian paediatric centres between September 1987 and March 1988 for evaluation of their risk for sudden infant death (SID). Questionnaires were collected from 1625 families. Of the infants, 8.9% were already being monitored at home. For 78.1% of the infants no medical advice had been solicited, and for 21.9%, a paediatrician or a general practitioner had advised home monitoring without previous evaluation. Forty of 824 infants referred with no history of SID, and no history of apparent life-threatening event (ALTE), were monitored (4.8%). Monitoring was started for 3.8% (5 out of 130) of the infants who had lost a cousin or an uncle to SID, and for 22.2% (69 of 310) of the younger siblings of a SID victim. Of the 341 infants who had presented with an ALTE, monitoring was started in 32 (9.4%). The infants were monitored with respiratory monitors only, and in 86% of the monitors, the alarm delay had been regulated unnecessarily low.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1090-6487
    Keywords: 75.30.Kz ; 75.40.−s ; 68.35.Rh
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The behavior of the surface and near-surface layers of macroscopic FeBO3 single crystals is studied over the temperature range from 291 K to Neél temperature (T N ) using depth-selective conversion-electron Mössbauer spectroscopy. Three different phases or states, namely, an antiferromagnetically ordered phase (similar to the crystal bulk state), a surface phase, and a transition layer between them coexist near the Neél point in a surface layer ∼500 nm thick. The critical parameters found for the bulk phase agree well with the theoretical critical index νth≅0.63 predicted by the 3D Ising model. As the crystal surface is approached, the critical parameter β increases to 0.51(2) but remains smaller than the value of β=0.8 for the surface of a semi-infinite Heisenberg model. Therefore, the effective dimensionality of the system, being equal to 3 in the bulk, decreases at the crystal surface.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1090-6487
    Keywords: 75.70.Ak ; 76.80.+y
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Depth-selective conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to study magnetic properties of the thin surface layers of the α-Fe2O3 and FeBO3 single crystals. An analysis of the experimental spectra indicates that the magnetic properties of the layers at a depth of more than ∼100 nm from the surface are similar to the properties of crystal bulk, and the corresponding spectra consist of narrow lines. The lines gradually broaden as the crystal surface is approached. The spectra of the ∼10-nm-thick surface layers consist of broad lines, indicating a wide distribution δ=2.1 T of the effective magnetic field about its mean value of 32.2(4) T. The experimental spectra were used to determine the effective magnetic fields (H eff) for the iron ions situated in the surface layers of thickness ∼100 nm. The effective fields in these layers were found to gradually decrease at room temperature (291 K) as the crystal surface was approached. The H eff values in the 2.4(9)-nm-thick surface layer of the α-Fe2O3 crystal and 4.9(9)-nm layer of FeBO3 are 0.7(2) and 1.2(3)%, respectively, smaller than for the nuclei of the ions in the bulk of these crystals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Apamin ; noradrenergic inhibitory nerves ; ATP ; smooth muscle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Apamin, a peptide of bee venom, was shown to inhibit the relaxant responses of guinea-pig taenia caeci to ATP, noradrenaline, adenosine and, less effectively, to stimulation of noradrenergic inhibitory nerves. Thus apamin acts nonspecifically and, contrary to the suggestion of Vladimirova and Shuba (1978), the fact that inhibitory responses due to nerve stimulation and ATP are blocked by the toxin does not allow conclusions as to the possible transmitter role of ATP in these nerves.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Forskolin ; Smooth muscle relaxation ; Cyclic AMP ; Phosphodiesterase inhibitors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Forskolin was found to cause concentration dependent, reversible relaxations of isolated smooth muscle preparations including rat aorta, bovine coronary artery, canine coronary artery, guinea pig taenia caeci and rabbit small intestine. The relaxant effects of forskolin in guinea pig taenia caeci and rabbit small intestine were potentiated by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors Ro 20-1724 and MIX. In rabbit small intestine, Ro 20-1724 also potentiated the relaxant effects of isoproterenol but not those of verapamil or 2-chloroadenosine. However, in bovine coronary arteries the phosphodiesterase inhibitors had to be used at concentrations of 100 nM or below because of relaxant effects and did not alter forskolin-induced relaxations. Forskolin caused a concentration dependent activation of adenylate cyclase in broken cell preparations from guinea pig taenia caeci and rabbit small intestine, exceeding the stimulatory effect of 10 mM NaF. These results indicate that relaxations of smooth muscle by forskolin are mediated by cyclic AMP and, in turn, that cyclic AMP may well serve as an intracellular mediator of physiological relaxant stimuli.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Brain, MR studies ; Brain, growth and development ; Intants, newborn, MR studies ; Magnetic resonance (MR), in infants and children ; Infants, newborn, central nervous system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary It is illustrated that phase-sensitive inversion-recovery MR images are particularly well suited for the monitoring of brain maturation and myelination in the neonate and young infant. Provided appropriate timings are applied with the inversion-recovery MR pulse sequence, the myelinated areas show up as bright spots in the phase-sensitive images. The chronology of the appearance, and the location of these hyperintense zones correlate well with the chronology of brain maturation, as assessed by other means. In particular, the progressive functional capabilities of the infant correlate well with the progress of myelination, as exhibited by the MR images.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Naturwissenschaften 50 (1963), S. 325-326 
    ISSN: 1432-1904
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 75 (1994), S. 2289-2290 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We evaluate the exchange interaction between neighboring grains of a polycrystalline magnetic material with uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, based on the energy of the domain wall formed at the portion of the interface in atomic contact. The analysis suggests that previous work [J.-G. Zhu and H. N. Bertram, in Solid State Physics Vol. 46, edited by H. Ehrenreich and T. Turnbull (Academic, San Diego, 1992)] may underestimate the interaction, and it predicts a different dependence on grain size.
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