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  • 1
    Keywords: PEPTIDE ; CANCER ; CELLS ; BLOOD ; CELL ; CLINICAL-TRIAL ; COMBINATION ; NEW-YORK ; DISTINCT ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; RESPONSES ; BASE ; CD8(+) T-CELLS ; T cell ; T cells ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; ASSOCIATION ; TRIAL ; TRIALS ; IDENTIFICATION ; ASSAY ; NUMBER ; CLINICAL-TRIALS ; COUNTRIES ; MELANOMA ; LYMPHOCYTES ; VARIABILITY ; PEPTIDES ; NETHERLANDS ; CD8(+) ; ELISPOT ; IMMUNOTHERAPY ; T-LYMPHOCYTES ; T lymphocyte ; sensitivity ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD ; PROJECT ; INTERFERON-GAMMA ; tetramer ; T lymphocytes ; GUIDELINES ; HETEROGENEITY ; CANCER VACCINES ; ONCOLOGY ; monitoring ; INCREASE ; analysis ; methods ; ASSAYS ; PHASE ; technique ; USA ; RECOMMENDATIONS ; STANDARDIZATION ; VARIABLES ; immunology ; INCREASES ; clinical trial ; CELL RESPONSES ; IMPORTANT DETERMINANT ; CD4+T-CELL IMMUNITY ; CYTOKINE FLOW-CYTOMETRY ; GAMMA ELISPOT ASSAYS ; Interlaboratory testing
    Abstract: The interpretation of the results obtained from immunomonitoring of clinical trials is a difficult task due to the variety of methods and protocols available to detect vaccine-specific T-cell responses. This heterogeneity as well as the lack of standards has led to significant scepticism towards published results. In February 2005, a working group was therefore founded under the aegis of the Association for Immunotherapy of Cancer ("CIMT") in order to compare techniques and protocols applied for the enumeration of antigen-specific T-cell responses. Here we present the results from two consecutive phases of an international inter-laboratory testing project referred to as the "CIMT monitoring panel". A total of 13 centers from six European countries participated in the study in which pre-tested PBMC samples, synthetic peptides and PE-conjugated HLA-tetramers were prepared centrally and distributed to participants. All were asked to determine the number of antigen-specific T-cells in each sample using tetramer staining and one functional assay. The results of the first testing round revealed that the total number of cells analyzed was the most important determinant for the sensitive detection of antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cells by tetramer staining. Analysis by ELISPOT was influenced by a combination of cell number and a resting phase after thawing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Therefore, the experiments were repeated in a second phase but now the participants were asked to change their protocols according to the new guidelines distilled from the results of the first phase. The recommendations improved the number of antigen-specific T-cell responses that were detected and decreased the variability between the laboratories. We conclude that a two-step approach in inter-laboratory testing allows the identification of distinct variables that influence the sensitivity of different T-cell assays and to formally show that a defined correction to the protocols successfully increases the sensitivity and reduces the inter-center variability. Such "two-step" inter-laboratory projects could define rational bases for accepted international guidelines and thereby lead to the harmonization of the techniques used for immune monitoring
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17721783
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  • 2
    Keywords: medical imaging ; MEDICINE ; NUCLEAR ; USA ; radiology ; nuclear medicine ; MELANOMA PATIENTS ; IMMUNOTHERAPY ; MELANOMA ; CELLS ; CELL ; imaging ; NEW-YORK ; PATIENT ; NUCLEAR-MEDICINE
    Type of Publication: Meeting abstract published
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; proliferation ; tumor ; BLOOD ; CELL ; Germany ; DIFFERENTIATION ; MOLECULES ; RELEASE ; ACTIVATION ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; T cell ; T cells ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; FLOW ; BIOLOGY ; MOLECULE ; culture ; cytokines ; MATURATION ; STIMULATION ; ASSAY ; NUMBER ; METASTATIC MELANOMA ; PHENOTYPE ; VACCINE ; IMMUNOTHERAPY ; ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY ; FLOW-CYTOMETRY ; INTERFERON-GAMMA ; COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR ; SURFACE EXPRESSION ; T-cell response ; CYTOKINE ; ELISA ; cancer vaccine ; LEVEL ; methods ; dendritic cell ; microbiology ; coagulation activation ; IL-6 ; MEDICINE ; MONOCYTES ; biotechnology ; E2 ; response ; discussion ; NORWAY ; CELL BIOLOGY ; LIGATION ; red ; CD86 ; DC maturation ; dendritic cell differentiation ; dendritic cell function ; platelet contamination ; T-HELPER-CELLS ; VITRO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-CHALLENGE
    Abstract: Background Monocytapheresis has been established to collect a sufficient number of monocytes (MO) for differentiation to dendritic cells (DC) as a cancer vaccine. Platelets (Plt) are invariably found as a contaminant in the final monocytapheresis product. The aim of this study was to investigate DC differentiation under the influence of Plt with regard to their function and phenotype. Methods MO were isolated and co-cultured with autologous Plt at different MO:Plt ratios (1:1.7, 1:5, 1:15, 1:45 and 1:135) in the presence of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). IL-12p70 release after ligation of CD40L was determined in the supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For T-cell stimulation, tetanus toxoid was added to immature DC and maturation was induced by adding cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- and prostaglandin E2). Stimulated T cells were analyzed for activation and proliferation as well as for intracellular cytokines by flow cytometry. Results All DC cultures were strongly positive for CD83. At a contaminating concentration of 5 Plt/MO, matured DC showed the highest expression of HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86, inducing a strong T-cell proliferation with high production of IL-4 and interferon-. The highest level of IL-12p70 production was observed by the same DC group. Discussion Plt did not negatively influence DC maturation but enhanced the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of IL-12. Functionally this was reflected by a strong T-cell response that involved T-helper 1 (Th1)- as well as Th2-biased T cells. Our findings show that controlling the Plt concentration may provide important advantages for the generation of DC for use in immunotherapy
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18985478
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