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  • 1
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Human Physiology ; Lipids ; Cell Biology ; Life sciences ; Lipidology ; Cell Biology ; Human Physiology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: PART I ENZYMES AND RECEPTORS FOR LIPID MEDIATORS -- 1 Lysophospholipid Acyltransferases -- 2 Phospholipase A2 -- 3 Prostaglandin Terminal Synthases as Novel Drug Targets -- 4 Pathophysiological Roles of Prostanoid Receptors in the Central Nervous System -- 5 Lipoxygenases: A Chronological Perspective on the Synthesis of S and R Fatty Acid Hydroperoxides -- 6 Leukotriene B4 Receptors -- 7 Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF) in Infectious Diseases -- 8 Lysophospholipid Mediators: Their Receptors and Synthetic Pathways -- 9 Sphingolipid Metabolism via Sphingosine 1-Phosphate and Its Role in Physiology, Pathology, and Nutrition -- 10 Fatty Acids Receptors -- 11 Omega-3 Fatty Acid Metabolism and Regulation of Inflammation -- PART II LIPID MEDIATORS IN DROSOPHILA AND ZEBRAFISH -- 12 Membrane Lipid Transporters in Drosophila melanogaster -- 13 Drosophila: A Model for Studying Prostaglandin Signaling -- 14 Zebrafish as a Model Animal for Studying Lysophosphatidic Acid Signaling -- 15 Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Signaling via Transporters in Zebrafish and Mice -- PART III LIPID MEDIATORS AND DISEASES -- 16 Lipid Mediator LPA-Induced Demyelination and Self-Amplification of LPA Biosynthesis in Chronic Pain Memory Mechanisms -- 17 Vascular Endothelial S1P2 Receptor Limits Tumor Angiogenesis and Hyperpermeability -- 18 Roles of Prostaglandins in Regulation of Pathological Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis -- 19 Eicosanoids and Aortic Aneurysm -- 20 Cysteinyl Leukotrienes and Disease -- 21 Lipid Mediators and Skin Diseases -- 22 Roles and Actions of Arachidonic Acid-Derived Bioactive Lipids in Stress-Related Behaviors -- PART IV PROTOCOLS FOR ANALYZING LIPID MEDIATORS -- 23 Basic Techniques for Lipid Extraction from Tissues and Cells -- 24 Comprehensive Analysis of Eicosanoids -- 25 Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Phospholipids by Target Discovery Approach -- 26 Determination of Sphingolipids by LC-MS/MS -- 27 Lipid Machinery Investigation Using MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry. 28 Measuring Activation of Lipid G Protein-Coupled Receptors Using the TGF-α Shedding Assay -- 29 A Novel Anti-FLAG Monoclonal Antibody is Useful to Study GPCRs -- Index
    Abstract: This book summarizes the most recent progress in the studies of lipid mediators from the molecular to clinical level and introduces newly created tools for analysis including imaging mass spectrometry. Comprising 29 chapters divided into four major parts, the book describes the molecular natures of enzymes, transporters, and receptors for lipid mediators (Part I), the function of lipid mediators in Drosophila and Zebrafish (Part II), the relationships between lipid mediators and various diseases (Part III), and detailed procedures of extraction, preparation, and quantification of lipid mediators (Part IV). Research on lipid mediators initially started with analysis of the action of aspirin, and subsequent biochemical experiments identified many enzymes and receptors responsible for the biosynthesis and signal transduction of individual lipid mediators. Through the phenotypic analyses of transgenic and knockout mice, it has been shown that the dysregulation of some lipid mediators causes inflammatory, immune, or oncogenic disorders. Lipid mediators have attracted increased attention because their structures are conserved among different species, and their biosynthetic and signaling pathways have been deciphered at the molecular level. Many drugs that target lipid mediators are already being used in hospitals, and this book suggests further possibilities for development of a wide variety of such drugs. Very recently, highly sensitive mass spectrometry has begun to be used to identify novel lipid mediators that are present only in trace amounts in tissues but with robust biological activity. Written by international experts, this book provides readers a comprehensive view of lipid mediators and related topics and helps in the process of determining research targets for the near future
    Pages: IX, 426 p. 95 illus., 48 illus. in color. : online resource.
    Edition: 1st ed. 2015.
    ISBN: 9784431556695
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  • 2
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Neurosciences ; Evolutionary Biology ; Zoology ; Life sciences ; Zoology ; Evolutionary Biology ; Neurosciences ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Part 1 The Origins of Neurons and Networks -- 1 Physical ethology of unicellular organism -- 2 Molecular characteristics of neuron-like functions in single-cell organisms -- 3 Back through time: how cnidarians and basal metazoans shed light on ancient nervous systems -- Part 2 The Rise of Diverse Brain Types -- 4 Functional specification of a primitive bilaterian brain in planarian -- 5 The computation and robustness of the mini-cognitive centers of terrestrial mollusks – an exquisite outcome of brain evolution -- 6 Insect brains - minute structures controlling complex behaviors -- 7 Identifying vertebrate brain prototypes in deuterostomes -- 8 Genome and Transcriptome-wide Researches of Brain Evolution -- Part 3 Cognitive Systems -- 9 The origin of vertebrate brain centers -- 10 Adaptive radiation and vertebrate brain diversity: cases of teleosts -- 11 Molecular profiling reveals insight into avian brain organization and functional columnar commonalities with mammals -- 12 The neocortex and dorsal ventricular ridge: functional convergence and underlying developmental mechanisms -- 13 Molecular investigations of the structure and development of the brain of carnivores -- 14 Evolution of the mammalian brain with a focus on whale olfactory bulbs -- 15 The Evolution and Function of Sleep -- 16 Prefrontal anatomical architecture and top-down behavioral control in human and non-human primates -- Part 4 Models and Designs -- 17 Organisational Principles of Connectomes: Changes during Evolution and Development -- 18 Muscular-Hydrostat Computers: Physical Reservoir Computing for Octopus-Inspired Soft Robots -- 19 Brain Evolution as an Information Flow Designer: the Ground Architecture for Biological and Artificial General Intelligence
    Abstract: This book presents a new, detailed examination that explains how elegant brains have been shaped in evolution. It consists of 19 chapters written by academic professionals in neuroscience, opening with the origin of single-celled creatures and then introducing primordial types in invertebrates with the great abundance of the brains of vertebrates. Important topics are provided in a timely manner, because novel techniques emerged rapidly€”ás seen, for examples, in the next-generation sequencers and omics approaches. With the explosion of big data, neural-related genes and molecules is now on the radar. In fact, Europ這s big science and technology projects, a ́‚Ơ1 billion plan called the Human Brain Project and the Blue Brain Project to understand mammalian brain networks, have been launched in recent years. Furthermore, with the rise of recently advanced artificial intelligence, there is great enthusiasm for understanding the evolution of neural networks. The views from brain evolution in nature provide an essential opportunity to generate ideas for novel neuron- and brain-inspired computation. The ambition behind this book is that it will stimulate young scientists who seek a deeper understanding in order to find the basic principles shaping brains that provided higher cognitive functions in the course of evolution
    Pages: VIII, 438 p. 113 illus., 83 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9784431564690
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  • 3
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Gene Expression ; Nucleic Acids ; Enzymes ; Cytology ; Life sciences ; Enzymology ; Nucleic Acid Chemistry ; Gene Expression ; Cell Biology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Structural aspects of mitochondrial ribosome function -- Mechanism and control of protein synthesis in mammalian mitochondria -- Translation in mammalian mitochondria : Order and disorder linked to tRNA and Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases -- Mitochondrial targeting of RNA and mitochondrial translation in yeast and mammalians -- Mechanisms and control of protein synthesis in yeast mitochondria -- Mitochondrial translation in trypanosomatids -- Translation in mitochondria and apicoplasts in Apicomplexa -- Translation in mitochondria in green alga and higher plants -- Translation in flowering plant chloroplasts -- The chloroplasts as platform for recombinant proteins production
    Abstract: This book provides a review of the multitude of nucleic acid polymerases, including DNA and RNA polymerases from Archea, Bacteria and Eukaryota, mitochondrial and viral polymerases, and other specialized polymerases such as telomerase, template-independent terminal nucleotidyl transferase and RNA self-replication ribozyme. Although many books cover several different types of polymerases, no book so far has attempted to catalog all nucleic acid polymerases. The goal of this book is to be the top reference work for postgraduate students, postdocs, and principle investigators who study polymerases of all varieties. In other words, this book is for polymerase fans by polymerase fans. Nucleic acid polymerases play a fundamental role in genome replication, maintenance, gene expression and regulation. Throughout evolution these enzymes have been pivotal in transforming life towards RNA self-replicating systems as well as into more stable DNA genomes. These enzymes are generally extremely efficient and accurate in RNA transcription and DNA replication and share common kinetic and structural features. How catalysis can be so amazingly fast without loss of specificity is a question that has intrigued researchers for over 60 years. Certain specialized polymerases that play a critical role in cellular metabolism are used for diverse biotechnological applications and are therefore an essential tool for research
    Pages: VIII, 342 p. 76 illus., 53 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783642397967
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0168-9002
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Fluid Dynamics Research 12 (1993), S. 271-279 
    ISSN: 0169-5983
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0922-338X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses whether platelet degranulation across the coronary bed is detectable during non-ischaemic periods in patients with vasospastic angina (VSA) and whether the exogenous nitric oxide (NO) donor nitroglycerin (GTN) is able to modify platelet degranulation, reflecting an impaired endothelial production of NO.2. We studied 13 patients with VSA and 10 controls. The time course of coronary sinus (CS) plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels was evaluated every 4 h before and after intravenous infusion of GTN over a period of 40 h. Coronary sinus plasma 5-HT levels were significantly higher at any measured time point in patients with VSA compared with control and were significantly decreased in patients with VSA following treatment with GTN, but not in controls. Femoral artery plasma 5-HT levels remained almost constant throughout the study. The ratio of CS:aorta 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α was significantly and inversely correlated with the transcardiac plasma 5-HT difference only in patients with VSA (r=−0.68; P 〈 0.02; n= 13).3. The time course of CS 5-HT levels confirmed significant platelet degranulation across the coronary bed supplied by the spasming artery in patients with VSA and this was modified by GTN. The present data suggest that platelet degranulation occurs during non-ischaemic periods in patients with VSA and that prostacyclin biosynthesis may be a compensatory response to an impaired endothelial release of NO, limiting the degree of the effects of platelet degranulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-086X
    Keywords: Key words: Coronary angiography—Ischemic heart disease—Atherosclerosis—Luminal diameter—Coronary angiogram
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose: To examine changes in the reference segment luminal diameter after coronary angioplasty. Methods: Sixty-one patients with stable angina pectoris or old myocardial infarction were examined. Coronary angiograms were recorded before coronary angioplasty (pre-angioplasty) and immediately after (post-angioplasty), as well as 3 months after. Artery diameters were measured on cine-film using quantitative coronary angiographic analysis. Results: The diameters of the proximal segment not involved in the balloon inflation and segments in the other artery did not change significantly after angioplasty, but the reference segment diameter significantly decreased (4.7%). More than 10% luminal reduction was observed in seven patients (11%) and more than 5% reduction was observed in 25 patients (41%). More than 5% underestimation of the stenosis was observed in 22 patients (36%) when the post-angioplasty reference diameter was used as the reference diameter, compared with when the pre-angioplasty measurement was used and more than 10% underestimation was observed in five patients (8%). Conclusion: This study indicated that evaluation by percent diameter stenosis, with the reference diameter from immediately after angioplasty, overestimates the dilative effects of coronary angioplasty, and that it is thus better to evaluate the efficacy of angioplasty using the absolute diameter in addition to percent luminal stenosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Effects of amino acids on macromolecular synthesis in Bacillus subtilis were studied. Two mutants, CRK4001 and NIG45, that were selected as slow growers in rich media were proved to be useful to analyse early events occurring after addition of amino acids to exponentially growing cells in a glucose-salts medium (nutritional shift-up). In a wild type strain, the rate of stable RNA (sRNA: essentially ribosomal RNA) synthesis increased 2.3 fold shortly after the shift-up to the rate characteristic of the post-shift steady state growth. In contrast, sRNA synthesis in the mutant strains responded to the shift-up in two steps. Thus, shortly after the shift the rate of sRNA synthesis increased 2.2 fold as in the wild type, but this increased level was maintained temporarily for 60 min and suddenly decreased to the post-shift steady state rate (1.4 fold increase). On the other hand, rates of DNA synthesis increased some 30 min after the shift directly to the post-shift steady state rates in all strains. Ratios of an origin to a terminus marker (purA/metB) began to increase exponentially to reach maximum values at 60 min after the shift, indicating that initiation of DNA replication occurred at frequencies characteristic of respective post-shift growth rates soon after the shift. These results revealed that the initial increase in the rate of sRNA synthesis and the frequency of initiation of DNA replication after nutritional shift are not related to each other and are independently affected by amino acids. In concert with these findings, the increase in sRNA synthesis was not affected by inhibition of DNA synthesis for the first 60 min after the shift, while it was completely prevented by puromycin and chloramphenicol. Protein synthesis for 10 min after the shift was sufficient to fully change the sRNA synthesis rate by amino acids.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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