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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; tumor ; CELL ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; RNA ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TUMORS ; ACTIVATION ; BINDING ; BIOLOGY ; TARGET ; CHROMATIN ; gene expression ; PROMOTER ; genetics ; MODULATION ; C-MYC ; REPRESSION ; TRANSCRIPTIONAL REPRESSION ; MYCN ; neuroblastoma ; N-MYC ; signaling ; ONCOLOGY ; B-CELL LYMPHOMAS ; miRNA ; outcome ; MICRORNA ; CELL BIOLOGY ; Genetic ; COHORTS ; EXPRESSION SIGNATURES ; PATHWAY DEREGULATION
    Abstract: Increased activity of MYC protein-family members is a common feature in many cancers. Using neuroblastoma as a tumor model, we established a microRNA (miRNA) signature for activated MYCN/c-MYC signaling in two independent primary neuroblastoma tumor cohorts and provide evidence that c-MYC and MYCN have overlapping functions. On the basis of an integrated approach including miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) gene expression data we show that miRNA activation contributes to widespread mRNA repression, both in c-MYC- and MYCN-activated tumors. c-MYC/MYCN-induced miRNA activation was shown to be dependent on c-MYC/MYCN promoter binding as evidenced by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Finally, we show that pathways, repressed through c-MYC/MYCN miRNA activation, are highly correlated to tumor aggressiveness and are conserved across different tumor entities suggesting that c-MYC/MYCN activate a core set of miRNAs for cooperative repression of common transcriptional programs related to disease aggressiveness. Our results uncover a widespread correlation between miRNA activation and c-MYC/MYCN-mediated coding gene expression modulation and further substantiate the overlapping functions of c-MYC and MYCN in the process of tumorigenesis. Oncogene (2010) 29, 1394-1404; doi:10.1038/onc.2009.429; published online 30 November 2009
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19946337
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  • 2
    Keywords: MYCN c-MYC neuroblastoma cancer
    Abstract: Background Amplified MYCN oncogene resulting in deregulated MYCN transcriptional activity is observed in 20% of neuroblastomas and identifies a highly aggressive subtype. In MYCN single-copy neuroblastomas, elevated MYCN mRNA and protein levels are paradoxically associated with a more favorable clinical phenotype, including disseminated tumors that subsequently regress spontaneously (stage 4s-non-amplified). In this study, we asked whether distinct transcriptional MYCN or c-MYC activities are associated with specific neuroblastoma phenotypes. Results We defined a core set of direct MYCN/c-MYC target genes by applying gene expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, ChIP-chip) in neuroblastoma cells that allow conditional regulation of MYCN and c-MYC. Their transcript levels were analyzed in 251 primary neuroblastomas. Compared to localized-non-amplified neuroblastomas, MYCN/c-MYC target gene expression gradually increases from stage 4s-non-amplified through stage 4-non-amplified to MYCN amplified tumors. This was associated with MYCN activation in stage 4s-non-amplified and predominantly c-MYC activation in stage 4-non-amplified tumors. A defined set of MYCN/c-MYC target genes was induced in stage 4-non-amplified but not in stage 4s-non-amplified neuroblastomas. In line with this, high expression of a subset of MYCN/c-MYC target genes identifies a patient subtype with poor overall survival independent of the established risk markers amplified MYCN, disease stage, and age at diagnosis. Conclusions High MYCN/c-MYC target gene expression is a hallmark of malignant neuroblastoma progression, which is predominantly driven by c-MYC in stage 4-non-amplified tumors. In contrast, moderate MYCN function gain in stage 4s-non-amplified tumors induces only a restricted set of target genes that is still compatible with spontaneous regression.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18851746
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; INHIBITOR ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; INHIBITION ; MODEL ; SITE ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; MECHANISM ; INDUCTION ; CONTRAST ; mechanisms ; BINDING ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; PROGRESSION ; CHROMATIN ; PROMOTER ; REGION ; DEGRADATION ; UBIQUITIN LIGASE ; REPRESSION ; S-PHASE ; TRANSCRIPTIONAL REPRESSION ; REGULATOR ; MYCN ; neuroblastoma ; INHIBITORS ; ONCOLOGY ; CORE ; SUBTYPES ; CANCERS ; PROTEIN-LEVELS
    Abstract: The cell cycle regulator, SKP2, is overexpressed in various cancers and plays a key role in p27 degradation, which is involved in tumor cell dedifferentiation. Little is known about the mechanisms leading to impaired SKP2 transcriptional control in tumor cells. We used neuroblastoma as a model to study SKP2 regulation because SKP2 transcript levels gradually increase with aggressiveness of neuroblastoma subtypes. The highest SKP2 levels are found in neuroblastomas with amplified MYCN. Accordingly, we found 5.5-fold (range, 2-9.5) higher SKP2 core promoter activity in MYCN-amplified cells. Higher SKP2 core promoter activity in MYCN-amplified cells is mediated through a defined region at the transcriptional start site. This region includes a specific E2F-binding site that makes SKP2 activation largely independent of mitogenic signals integrated through the SP1/ELK-1 site. We show by chromatin immunoprecipitation that SKP2 activation through the transcriptional start site in MYCN-amplified cells is associated with the low abundance of pRB-E2F1 complexes bound to the SKP2 promoter. Transcriptional control of SKP2 through this regulatory mechanism can be re-established in MYCN-amplified cells by restoring pRB activity using selective small compound inhibitors of CDK4. In contrast, doxorubicin or nutlin-3 treatment-both leading to p53-p21 activation-or CDK2 inhibition had no effect on SKP2 regulation in MYCN-amplified cells. Together, this implies that deregulated MYCN protein levels in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells activate SKP2 through CDK4 induction, abrogating repressive pRB-E2F1 complexes bound to the SKP2 promoter. Cancer Res; 70(9); 3791-802. (C) 2010 AACR
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20424123
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; SURVIVAL ; MODEL ; CLASSIFICATION ; GENE ; transcription ; DIFFERENTIATION ; BINDING ; cell cycle ; DELETED REGION ; HELMINTHOSPORIUM-CARBONUM (HC)-TOXIN ; GLIOBLASTOMAS ; BINDING TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATORS ; DEFINITION
    Abstract: A distal portion of human chromosome 1p is often deleted in neuroblastomas and other cancers and it is generally assumed that this region harbors one or more tumor suppressor genes. In neuroblastoma, a 261 kb region at 1p36.3 that encompasses the smallest region of consistent deletion pinpoints the locus for calmodulin binding transcription activator 1 (CAMTA1). Low CAMTA1 expression is an independent predictor of poor outcome in multivariate survival analysis, but its potential functionality in neuroblastoma has not been explored. In this study, we used inducible cell models to analyze the impact of CAMTA1 on neuroblastoma biology. In neuroblastoma cells that expressed little endogenous CAMTA1, its ectopic expression slowed cell proliferation, increasing the relative proportion of cells in G(1)/G(0) phases of the cell cycle, inhibited anchorage-independent colony formation, and suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts. CAMTA1 also induced neurite-like processes and markers of neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma cells. Further, retinoic acid and other differentiation-inducing stimuli upregulated CAMTA1 expression in neuroblastoma cells. Transciptome analysis revealed 683 genes regulated on CAMTA1 induction and gene ontology analysis identified genes consistent with CAMTA1-induced phenotypes, with a significant enrichment for genes involved in neuronal function and differentiation. Our findings define properties of CAMTA1 in growth suppression and neuronal differentiation that support its assignment as a 1p36 tumor suppressor gene in neuroblastoma.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21385898
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  • 5
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; proliferation ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; INHIBITION ; KINASE ; DEATH ; incidence ; CLONING ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; RNA ; transcription ; DRUG ; ACTIVATION ; MECHANISM ; MESSENGER-RNA ; MARKER ; primary ; CARCINOGENESIS ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; PROTEIN-KINASE ; BREAST-CANCER ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROGRESSION ; CHROMATIN ; ASSAY ; resistance ; CELL-DEATH ; INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; PROMOTER ; chemotherapy ; PROGNOSTIC-SIGNIFICANCE ; doxorubicin ; sensitivity ; FAILURE ; OVEREXPRESSION ; drug resistance ; DRUG-RESISTANCE ; LUCIFERASE ; INTERFERON-GAMMA ; AKT ; Bcl-2 ; neuroblastoma ; DRUG-INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; N-MYC ; signaling ; ONCOLOGY ; INTERFERENCE ; RNA INTERFERENCE ; secretion ; mRNA ; LEVEL ; ASSAYS ; cell death ; ENGLAND ; PROMOTES ; TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR GENES ; enzymatic ; outcome ; chromatin immunoprecipitation ; chemotherapy resistance
    Abstract: High incidence of chemotherapy resistance is the primary cause of treatment failure in a subset of neuroblastomas with amplified MYCN. We have reported previously that ectopic MYCN expression promotes proliferation of neuroblastoma Tet21N cells and simultaneously sensitizes them to the drug-induced apoptosis. In search for genes that are involved in MYCN-dependent regulation of drug resistance, we used a function-based gene cloning approach and identified CTSD encoding for a lysosomal aspartyl protease cathepsin D. Downregulation of cathepsin D expression by RNA interference or inhibition of its enzymatic activity increased sensitivity of MYCN-expressing Tet21N cells to doxorubicin. Overexpression of cathepsin D in Tet21N cells attenuated doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. It was accompanied by activation of protein kinase B (Akt) and persistent antiapoptotic activity of Bcl-2. In primary neuroblastomas, high CTSD messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were associated with amplified MYCN, a strong predictive marker of adverse outcome. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase promoter assays revealed that MYCN protein binds to the CTSD promoter and activates its transcription, suggesting a direct link between deregulated MYCN and CTSD mRNA expression. We further show that neuroblastoma cells can secrete mitogenic procathepsin D and that MYCN expression and especially doxorubicin treatment promote procathepsin D secretion. Extracellular exogenous cathepsin D induces Akt-1 phosphorylation and doxorubicin resistance in sensitive cells. These results demonstrate an important role of cathepsin D in antiapoptotic signaling in neuroblastoma cells and suggest a novel mechanism for the development of chemotherapy resistance in neuroblastoma
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18566016
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  • 6
    Keywords: ANGIOGENESIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; INVASION ; PATHWAY ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; RNA ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; TARGET ; PROGRESSION ; AMPLIFICATION ; METASTASIS ; CANCER-CELLS ; ADHESION ; STEM-CELLS ; beta-catenin ; TARGETS ; C-MYC ; OVEREXPRESSION ; TUMOR ANGIOGENESIS ; MAMMARY EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; N-MYC ; HUMAN BREAST-CANCER ; E-cadherin ; MOTILITY ; miRNA ; MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION ; CELL BIOLOGY
    Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly implicated in regulating the malignant progression of cancer. Here we show that miR-9, which is upregulated in breast cancer cells, directly targets CDH1, the E-cadherin-encoding messenger RNA, leading to increased cell motility and invasiveness. miR-9-mediated E-cadherin downregulation results in the activation of beta-catenin signalling, which contributes to upregulated expression of the gene encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); this leads, in turn, to increased tumour angiogenesis. Overexpression of miR-9 in otherwise non-metastatic breast tumour cells enables these cells to form pulmonary micrometastases in mice. Conversely, inhibiting miR-9 by using a 'miRNA sponge' in highly malignant cells inhibits metastasis formation. Expression of miR-9 is activated by MYC and MYCN, both of which directly bind to the mir-9-3 locus. Significantly, in human cancers, miR-9 levels correlate with MYCN amplification, tumour grade and metastatic status. These findings uncover a regulatory and signalling pathway involving a metastasis-promoting miRNA that is predicted to directly target expression of the key metastasis-suppressing protein E-cadherin
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20173740
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  • 7
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  124. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie; 20070501-20070504; München; DOC07dgch6903 /20071001/
    Publication Date: 2007-10-02
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 8
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; INHIBITOR ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; MODEL ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; PROTEIN ; transcription ; TUMORS ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; prognosis ; INDUCTION ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; SUPPRESSION ; cell culture ; TARGET ; STABILITY ; DEGRADATION ; TARGETS ; OVEREXPRESSION ; POOR-PROGNOSIS ; S-PHASE ; MYCN ; neuroblastoma ; N-MYC ; WILD-TYPE P53 ; regulation ; NEGATIVE REGULATION ; NOV ; SPLICE VARIANTS ; E2F1 ; TRANSCRIPTION-FACTOR ; BIRC5 ; BIRC5-2B ; HUMAN SURVIVIN
    Abstract: We analysed the expression of BIRC5 and BIRC5-2B in primary neuroblastoma (NB) tumors and NB model systems. In tumors, overexpression of BIRC5 correlated closely with its isoform BIRC5-2B. Expression of both transcripts was stage-dependent, associated with poor prognosis and with the expression of the transcription factor E2F1. In cell culture, we identified BIRC5 as a direct transcriptional target of activating E2Fs, primarily when p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1), two other E2F1 targets, are strongly suppressed. Deregulated MYCN indirectly induces BIRC5 through suppression of CDKN1A/p21(Cip1) and induction of Skp2, which in turn favors the degradation of p27(Kip1). In addition, increased BIRC5 protein stability via phosphorylation is mediated by expression of E2F targets such as CDC2. In line with this, selective knock down of CDC2 inhibited BIRC5 abundance and suppressed its anti-apoptotic activities. We conclude that BIRC5 is induced via a functional cooperation between MYCN and E2F1. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19497660
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  • 9
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; QUANTIFICATION ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENOME ; SAMPLE ; transcription ; DIFFERENTIATION ; MOLECULES ; TISSUES ; MOLECULE ; PERFORMANCE ; PATTERNS ; gene expression ; genetics ; PCR ; PROBES ; neuroblastoma ; TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR ; ACCURATE ; MicroRNAs ; biotechnology ; MICRORNA ; gene expression analysis ; Genetic ; STRATEGY ; QUANTITATIVE PCR ; REFERENCE RNA
    Abstract: Gene expression analysis of microRNA molecules is becoming increasingly important. In this study we assess the use of the mean expression value of all expressed microRNAs in a given sample as a normalization factor for microRNA real-time quantitative PCR data and compare its performance to the currently adopted approach. We demonstrate that the mean expression value outperforms the current normalization strategy in terms of better reduction of technical variation and more accurate appreciation of biological changes
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19531210
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; MDM2 ; METHYLATION ; TARGET GENE ; FUNCTIONAL-ANALYSIS ; P53/MDM2/P14(ARF) PATHWAY ; DEMETHYLASE JMJD3 CONTRIBUTES ; P53 PATHWAY ; TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR LOCUS ; CDKN2A GENE
    Abstract: The TP53 tumor suppressor pathway is abrogated by TP53 mutations in the majority of human cancers. Increased levels of wildtype TP53 in aggressive neuroblastomas appear paradox but are tolerated by tumor cells due to co-activation of the TP53 ubiquitin ligase, MDM2. The role of the MDM2 antagonist, p14(ARF), in controlling the TP53-MDM2 balance in neuroblastoma is unresolved. In the present study, we show that conditional p14(ARF) expression substantially suppresses viability, clonogenicity and anchorage-independent growth in p14(ARF)-deficient or MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines. Furthermore, ectopic 14(ARF) expression induced accumulation of cells in the G1 phase and apoptosis, which was paralleled by accumulation of TP53 and its targets. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of 193 primary neuroblastomas detected one homozygous deletion of CDKN2A (encoding both p14(ARF) and p16(INK4A)) and heterozygous loss of CDKN2A in 22% of tumors. Co-expression analysis of p14(ARF) and its transactivator, E2F1, in a set of 68 primary tumors revealed only a weak correlation, suggesting that further regulatory mechanisms govern p14(ARF) expression in neuroblastomas. Intriguingly, analyses utilizing chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed different histone mark-defined epigenetic activity states of p14(ARF)in neuroblastoma cell lines that correlated with endogenous p14(ARF) expression but not with episomal p14(ARF) promoter reporter activity, indicating that the native chromatin context serves to epigenetically repress p14(ARF) in neuroblastoma cells. Collectively, the data pinpoint p14(ARF) as a critical factor for efficient TP53 response in neuroblastoma cells and assign p14(ARF) as a neuroblastoma suppressor candidate that is impaired by genomic loss and epigenetic repression.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23343716
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