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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Methyldopa ; radioactive label ; pharmacokinetics ; metabolism ; healthy volunteers ; intravenous and oral administration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetics of 2-14C-L-α-methyldopa have been investigated in five healthy volunteers following intravenous and oral administration. In the intravenous study a bi-phasic plasma concentration curve was found both for chemically determined α-methyldopa and for radioactivity. The plasma level of radioactivity differed significantly from chemically determined drug, a pattern which was also found in urine. This suggests the presence of unidentified metabolite(s). The difference between plasma disappearance and urine recovery of α-methyldopa and radioactivity during the first 4 h after injection suggests distribution to an extravascular compartment. Plasma half-lives of total radioactivity and of unchanged drug were calculated. In three subjects, pharmacokinetic parameters for a two-compartment open body model were calculated from urine and plasma data. Urinary recovery of radioactivity was almost complete within 48 h after intravenous administration. After oral administration, however, only about 40 per cent of the radioactive dose was recovered in the urine, and it contained approximately equal amounts of unconjugated methyldopa, acid-labile conjugated methyldopa and unidentified metabolite(s). The acid-labile conjugate was found only after oral administration, which supports the theory of a mucosal conjugation process. The lack of acid-labile conjugated drug either in the plasma or urine after intravenous injection indicates that there is no enterohepatic circulation of this drug.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Key words: Image-guided surgery — Laparoscopy — Neurosurgery — Stereoscopic display — 3D Ultrasound — Vascular surgery
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Initial in vivo and in vitro experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of stereoscopically displaying three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound data from neurosurgery, laparoscopic surgery, and vascular surgery. Stereoscopic visualization was illustrated by four video sequences, which can be downloaded from http://www.us.unimed.sintef.no/. These sequences show a brain tumor, hepatic arteries in relation to the gallbladder, a model that mimics a neuroendoscope in a cyst, and a ``flight'' into model of an artery with an intima flap. The experiments indicate that stereoscopic display of ultrasound data is feasible when there is sufficient contrast between the objects of interest and the surrounding tissue. True 3D vision improves perception, thus enhancing the ability to understand complex anatomic structures such as irregular lesions and tortuous vessels.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 414 (1989), S. 243-251 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Ewing's sarcoma ; Histology ; Immunohistochemistry ; Prognostic factors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Histological and immunohistochemical features of 87 patients with conventionally diagnosed Ewing's sarcoma were studied retrospectively on routinely processed material and evaluated with regard to prognostic significance. 74% were convincingly positive when stained for vimentin, 13% were doubtful, and 13% were negative. A varying degree of positivity for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was found in 15%; these cases all co-expressed vimentin. A single tumour contained scattered cytokeratin-positive cells. Positivity for the leukocyte common antigen (LCA) could be demonstrated in three cases; these were excluded from the statistical analysis of prognostic factors. Growth pattern, soft tissue invasion, monomorphic or dimorphic cell population, and PAS-, NSE- or vimentin-positivity did not influence survival significantly. However, prognosis was increasingly poor with increasing degree of necrosis: median survival was 28 months for grade I necrosis (〈10%), 16 months for grade II (10–50%), and 11 months for grade III (〉50%),p〈0.0005. A mitosis count of 〈1 per high-powerfield (HPF) was correlated to a median survival of 26 months, ≥ 1 per HPF to 12 months,p〈0.05. The findings indicate some degree of heterogeneity in Ewing's sarcoma which may be related to primitive peripheral neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs), or be a true blastoma. In future trials, diagnostic criteria (including immunohistochemistry) should be clearly defined and materials should be large enough to allow for stratification according to prognostic factors.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Key words Fibrous dysplasia ; Malignant fibrous dysplasia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We describe a patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and secondary malignant fibrous histiocytoma in a spinal lesion.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    World journal of surgery 8 (1984), S. 71-74 
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé La chirurgie artérielle s'est développée rapidement au cours de ces 25 dernières années. Si les indications de cette chirurgie sont assez bien définies, l'étude de divers rapports met en évidence d'importantes différences dans la fréquence des opérations vasculaires pratiquées. La majorité des chiffres rapportés étant le fait d'études entreprises aux Etats-Unis où le système de soins est très différent de celui de la Suède et de la Norvège. Le but de cet article est d'apprécier les besoins réels de la chirurgie vasculaire en Scandinavie pour la planifier et l'organiser en se basant sur des données locales rigoureusement précisées.
    Abstract: Resumen El nÚmero exacto de operaciones arteriales realizadas en Escandinavia ha sido establecido mediante un cuestionario con una tasa de respuesta del 96%. En Suecia esta tasa fue de 470 por millón de habitantes en 1980, y en Noruega de 553 por millón de habitantes en 1981; las diferencias regionales dentro de los dos países fueron grandes. Sólo en el 14% de los hospitales se realizaron más de 100 operaciones arteriales por año. También se informa el desarrollo de la cirugía arterial durante un período de 10 años en las ciuda-des de Malmö y Oslo, las cuales poseen activos centros vasculares. El incremento en las dos ciudades es similar y superior al 300%. La angioplastia percutánea transluminal representó el 11% del nÚméro total de intervenciones arteriales en 1981.
    Notes: Abstract With help of a questionnaire with a 96% response rate, the exact number of arterial operations in Scandinavia has been established. In Sweden in 1980 it was 470 per million inhabitants and in Norway in 1981 it was 553 per million inhabitants, but regional differences within the countries were great. In only 14% of the hospitals were more than 100 arterial operations performed per year. The development of arterial surgery during a 10-year period in the cities of Malmö and Oslo, with active vascular centers, is also given. The increase in the two cities is similar and above 300%. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty comprised 11% of the total number of arterial interventions in 1981.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Electrochimica Acta 13 (1968), S. 91-98 
    ISSN: 0013-4686
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1615-5939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Seven patients were operated on for thoracic (n=2) or thoracoabdominal (n=5) aortic aneurysms during cross-clamping of the aorta. Interstitial tissue fluid pressure was measured at the neck during cross-clamping of the descending thoracic aorta by the wick-in-needle technique, whereas control measurements were obtained prior to cross-clamping. The subcutaneous interstitial fluid pressure was significantly higher on the neck during cross-clamping of the thoracic aorta compared with control measurements (median 3.7 mmHg vs −0.6 mmHg, p〈0.05). Increased subcutaneous interstitial tissue pressure of the upper part of the body is probably caused by increased capillary filtration rate induced by inhibited autoregulatory functions during aortic cross-clamping. The pressure measurements objectively confirm the problem of edema formation of the head and neck during these operations. The edema may occasionally affect the upper airways and represent a problem for intubation of the patient in the postoperative phase.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1615-5939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A review is given of endovascular treatment for AAA, thoracic aortic aneurysms, dissections as well as complications following previous aortic surgery. In several of these conditions endovascular treatment has advantages like a reduced operative trauma, shorter stay in hospital, and the possibility of treating patients who would have been unfit for open surgery. On the other hand, problems like endoleak, deformation of the endoprosthesis, retrograde filling of the aneurysmal sack, and graft limb occlusion need to be solved before the place of endovascular treatment can be defined. It is possible that the steadily improving quality of the implants as well as the introducer systems will widen the indications for endovascular surgery, but randomised clinical trials are warranted and a longer follow-up period is necessary to draw final conclusions.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1615-5939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the plasma catecholamine response to cross-clamping of the descending thoracic aorta in pigs and to relate the plasma catecholamine response to cardiac output during cross-clamping. This prospective, controlled animal study was done at the University Hospital of Trondheim, Norway. Eight pigs (19–25 kg) underwent cross-clamping of the descending thoracic aorta for 30 minutes. The time course of plasma adrenaline, plasma noradrenaline, and ascending aortic blood flow were measured. It was found that the increase of plasma catecholamines during cross-clamping of the descending thoracic aorta in pigs was parallel to the increase of aortic blood flow during cross-clamping. Plasma adrenaline increased from 0.22 nmol/L to a maximum of 11.75 nmol/L and plasma noradrenaline increased from 0.17 nmol/L to a maximum of 46.92 nmol/L after 10 minutes of cross-clamping (p=0.01). Ascending aortic blood flow increased from 2.6 L/minute to a maximum of 4.7 L/minute after 10 minutes of cross-clamping (p=0.01). Our findings support the theory that increased plasma catecholamines might be a mechanism of increased cardiac output during cross-clamping of the descending thoracic aorta. The increase of plasma catecholamines during cross-clamping is most likely due to distal hypotension with increased sympathetic activity.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0560
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Superficial leiomyosarcomas are rare tumours. The lesions confined to the dermis, contrary to those involving the subcutis, have been reported to carry a favourable prognosis.A retrospective study of 41 consecutive cases of surgically treated intradermal and subcutaneous leiomyosarcomas was undertaken in order to determine the prognostic factors that may influence the survival of these patients. Seven tumours were predominantly intradermal and 34 involved the subcutaneous tissue. Fifty-four percent of the tumours were located in the lower extremities. All cases stained positively for smooth muscle antigen and 66% for desmin. The tumours were classified with regard to tumour grade I (low grade, 3%), II (intermediate, 12%), IIIA (high grade, 46%) and IIIB (high grade, 39%). In all patients, follow-up information was available. Mean follow-up time was 5 years. The patients with intradermal tumours were all alive without signs of recurrence, whereas 14 of those with leiomyosarcomas involving the subcutis have died with pulmonary metastases.Our study confirms that “pure” intradermal leiomyosarcomas independent of tumour grade behave in a benign fashion, probably due to small tumour size. Tumour size ≥ 5 cm, deep localization with fascia involvement, and high malignancy grade (IIIB) were found to deteriorate survival based on a univariate analysis. However, in a multivariate analysis only tumour size was found to be an independent prognostic factor.
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