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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-04-13
    Description: Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate magnetosensation in vertebrates is a formidable scientific problem. One hypothesis is that magnetic information is transduced into neuronal impulses by using a magnetite-based magnetoreceptor. Previous studies claim to have identified a magnetic sense system in the pigeon, common to avian species, which consists of magnetite-containing trigeminal afferents located at six specific loci in the rostral subepidermis of the beak. These studies have been widely accepted in the field and heavily relied upon by both behavioural biologists and physicists. Here we show that clusters of iron-rich cells in the rostro-medial upper beak of the pigeon Columbia livia are macrophages, not magnetosensitive neurons. Our systematic characterization of the pigeon upper beak identified iron-rich cells in the stratum laxum of the subepidermis, the basal region of the respiratory epithelium and the apex of feather follicles. Using a three-dimensional blueprint of the pigeon beak created by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, we mapped the location of iron-rich cells, revealing unexpected variation in their distribution and number--an observation that is inconsistent with a role in magnetic sensation. Ultrastructure analysis of these cells, which are not unique to the beak, showed that their subcellular architecture includes ferritin-like granules, siderosomes, haemosiderin and filopodia, characteristics of iron-rich macrophages. Our conclusion that these cells are macrophages and not magnetosensitive neurons is supported by immunohistological studies showing co-localization with the antigen-presenting molecule major histocompatibility complex class II. Our work necessitates a renewed search for the true magnetite-dependent magnetoreceptor in birds.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Treiber, Christoph Daniel -- Salzer, Marion Claudia -- Riegler, Johannes -- Edelman, Nathaniel -- Sugar, Cristina -- Breuss, Martin -- Pichler, Paul -- Cadiou, Herve -- Saunders, Martin -- Lythgoe, Mark -- Shaw, Jeremy -- Keays, David Anthony -- England -- Nature. 2012 Apr 11;484(7394):367-70. doi: 10.1038/nature11046.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr-Gasse, 1030 Vienna, Austria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Migration ; Animals ; Beak/anatomy & histology/*cytology ; Columbidae/*anatomy & histology/physiology ; Feathers/cytology/ultrastructure ; Ferrocyanides/analysis ; Immunohistochemistry ; Iron/analysis/*metabolism ; Macrophages/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; *Magnetic Fields ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Neurons/metabolism ; Orientation ; Respiratory Mucosa/cytology/ultrastructure ; *Sensation ; Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The full potential of mechanical circulatory systems in the treatment of cardiogenic shock is impeded by the lack of accurate measures of cardiac function to guide clinicians in determining when to initiate and how to optimally titrate support. The left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) is an established metric of cardiac function that refers to the pressure in the left ventricle at the end of ventricular filling and immediately before ventricular contraction. In clinical practice, LVEDP is typically only inferred from, and poorly correlates with, the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). We leveraged the position of an indwelling percutaneous ventricular assist device and advanced data analysis methods to obtain LVEDP from the hysteretic operating metrics of the device. We validated our hysteresis-derived LVEDP measurement using mock flow loops, an animal model of cardiac dysfunction, and data from a patient in cardiogenic shock to show greater measurement precision and correlation with actual pressures than traditional inferences via PCWP. Delineation of the nonlinear relationship between device and heart adds insight into the interaction between ventricular support devices and the native heart, paving the way for continuous assessment of underlying cardiac state, metrics of cardiac function, potential closed-loop automated control, and rational design of future innovations in mechanical circulatory support systems.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Sinusoidal variations of expired oxygen fraction (FEO2) and arterial blood oxygen saturation (S aO2) were measured in three paralyzed and anesthetized goats after producing sinusoidal changes in inspired oxygen fraction (FIO2) under controlled ventilation. These frequency-domain data were used to evaluate the quantitative dynamic relations among FIO2, FEO2, oxygen uptake at the lung $$\dot VO_2 $$ and S aO2 using the material balance equation at the lung and the Fourier transform of this equation. The overall transfer function between FIO2 and FEO2 was T(s)=0.07/(s+0.075) with a time constant of 13.3 sec, and $$\dot VO_2 $$ and S aO2(s) were related by a transfer function, G 1(s)=0.03/(s+0.008), with a time constant of 125 sec. The magnitude of the fundamental component of S aO2(s), |S aO2(jw)|, was related to |FEO2(jw)| by a constant, K=0.607, as S aO2 remained near the linear portion of the O2-hemoglobin dissociation curve in moderate hypoxia. Based upon the present frequency-domain analysis, the slow time response of S aO2 to the transient change of O2 concentration of the atmosphere is related to the homeostatic mechanism of the change of oxygen stores in the blood due to circulatory responses. The fast time response in FEO2 to the change of FIO2 is produced by the tachometer feedback function of the oxygen stored in the functional residual capacity of the lung. The present analysis and experimental observation provide a new method of investigating oxygen uptake using frequency-domain analysis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: The domestic rock pigeon ( Columba livia ) is among the most widely distributed and phenotypically diverse avian species. C. livia is broadly studied in ecology, genetics, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary biology, and has recently emerged as a model for understanding the molecular basis of anatomical diversity, the magnetic sense, and other key aspects of avian biology. Here we report an update to the C. livia genome reference assembly and gene annotation dataset. Greatly increased scaffold lengths in the updated reference assembly, along with an updated annotation set, provide improved tools for evolutionary and functional genetic studies of the pigeon, and for comparative avian genomics in general.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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