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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-05-04
    Description: The mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) kinase nucleates a pathway that promotes cell growth and proliferation and is the target of rapamycin, a drug with many clinical uses. mTORC1 regulates messenger RNA translation, but the overall translational program is poorly defined and no unifying model exists to explain how mTORC1 differentially controls the translation of specific mRNAs. Here we use high-resolution transcriptome-scale ribosome profiling to monitor translation in mouse cells acutely treated with the mTOR inhibitor Torin 1, which, unlike rapamycin, fully inhibits mTORC1 (ref. 2). Our data reveal a surprisingly simple model of the mRNA features and mechanisms that confer mTORC1-dependent translation control. The subset of mRNAs that are specifically regulated by mTORC1 consists almost entirely of transcripts with established 5' terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) motifs, or, like Hsp90ab1 and Ybx1, with previously unrecognized TOP or related TOP-like motifs that we identified. We find no evidence to support proposals that mTORC1 preferentially regulates mRNAs with increased 5' untranslated region length or complexity. mTORC1 phosphorylates a myriad of translational regulators, but how it controls TOP mRNA translation is unknown. Remarkably, loss of just the 4E-BP family of translational repressors, arguably the best characterized mTORC1 substrates, is sufficient to render TOP and TOP-like mRNA translation resistant to Torin 1. The 4E-BPs inhibit translation initiation by interfering with the interaction between the cap-binding protein eIF4E and eIF4G1. Loss of this interaction diminishes the capacity of eIF4E to bind TOP and TOP-like mRNAs much more than other mRNAs, explaining why mTOR inhibition selectively suppresses their translation. Our results clarify the translational program controlled by mTORC1 and identify 4E-BPs and eIF4G1 as its master effectors.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3347774/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3347774/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Thoreen, Carson C -- Chantranupong, Lynne -- Keys, Heather R -- Wang, Tim -- Gray, Nathanael S -- Sabatini, David M -- CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA129105/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866-08/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105-05/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 May 2;485(7396):109-13. doi: 10.1038/nature11083.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cancer Biology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 250 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22552098" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 5' Untranslated Regions/genetics ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E/metabolism ; Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4G/metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; *Models, Biological ; Multiprotein Complexes ; Naphthyridines/pharmacology ; Nucleotide Motifs ; Phosphorylation ; Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics/pathology ; Protein Binding ; *Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects ; Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; Ribosomes/metabolism ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-03-31
    Description: Clinical responses to anticancer therapies are often restricted to a subset of patients. In some cases, mutated cancer genes are potent biomarkers for responses to targeted agents. Here, to uncover new biomarkers of sensitivity and resistance to cancer therapeutics, we screened a panel of several hundred cancer cell lines--which represent much of the tissue-type and genetic diversity of human cancers--with 130 drugs under clinical and preclinical investigation. In aggregate, we found that mutated cancer genes were associated with cellular response to most currently available cancer drugs. Classic oncogene addiction paradigms were modified by additional tissue-specific or expression biomarkers, and some frequently mutated genes were associated with sensitivity to a broad range of therapeutic agents. Unexpected relationships were revealed, including the marked sensitivity of Ewing's sarcoma cells harbouring the EWS (also known as EWSR1)-FLI1 gene translocation to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. By linking drug activity to the functional complexity of cancer genomes, systematic pharmacogenomic profiling in cancer cell lines provides a powerful biomarker discovery platform to guide rational cancer therapeutic strategies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3349233/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3349233/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Garnett, Mathew J -- Edelman, Elena J -- Heidorn, Sonja J -- Greenman, Chris D -- Dastur, Anahita -- Lau, King Wai -- Greninger, Patricia -- Thompson, I Richard -- Luo, Xi -- Soares, Jorge -- Liu, Qingsong -- Iorio, Francesco -- Surdez, Didier -- Chen, Li -- Milano, Randy J -- Bignell, Graham R -- Tam, Ah T -- Davies, Helen -- Stevenson, Jesse A -- Barthorpe, Syd -- Lutz, Stephen R -- Kogera, Fiona -- Lawrence, Karl -- McLaren-Douglas, Anne -- Mitropoulos, Xeni -- Mironenko, Tatiana -- Thi, Helen -- Richardson, Laura -- Zhou, Wenjun -- Jewitt, Frances -- Zhang, Tinghu -- O'Brien, Patrick -- Boisvert, Jessica L -- Price, Stacey -- Hur, Wooyoung -- Yang, Wanjuan -- Deng, Xianming -- Butler, Adam -- Choi, Hwan Geun -- Chang, Jae Won -- Baselga, Jose -- Stamenkovic, Ivan -- Engelman, Jeffrey A -- Sharma, Sreenath V -- Delattre, Olivier -- Saez-Rodriguez, Julio -- Gray, Nathanael S -- Settleman, Jeffrey -- Futreal, P Andrew -- Haber, Daniel A -- Stratton, Michael R -- Ramaswamy, Sridhar -- McDermott, Ultan -- Benes, Cyril H -- 086357/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1U54HG006097-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41GM079575-02/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Mar 28;483(7391):570-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11005.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cancer Genome Project, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22460902" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Survival/drug effects ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects/*genetics ; *Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics ; Genes, Neoplasm/*genetics ; Genetic Markers/*genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics ; Humans ; Indoles/pharmacology ; Neoplasms/*drug therapy/*genetics/pathology ; Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics ; Pharmacogenetics ; Phthalazines/pharmacology ; Piperazines/pharmacology ; Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors ; Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1/genetics ; RNA-Binding Protein EWS/genetics ; Sarcoma, Ewing/drug therapy/genetics/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-07-28
    Description: The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) protein kinase promotes growth and is the target of rapamycin, a clinically useful drug that also prolongs life span in model organisms. A persistent mystery is why the phosphorylation of many bona fide mTORC1 substrates is resistant to rapamycin. We find that the in vitro kinase activity of mTORC1 toward peptides encompassing established phosphorylation sites varies widely and correlates strongly with the resistance of the sites to rapamycin, as well as to nutrient and growth factor starvation within cells. Slight modifications of the sites were sufficient to alter mTORC1 activity toward them in vitro and to cause concomitant changes within cells in their sensitivity to rapamycin and starvation. Thus, the intrinsic capacity of a phosphorylation site to serve as an mTORC1 substrate, a property we call substrate quality, is a major determinant of its sensitivity to modulators of the pathway. Our results reveal a mechanism through which mTORC1 effectors can respond differentially to the same signals.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3771538/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3771538/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kang, Seong A -- Pacold, Michael E -- Cervantes, Christopher L -- Lim, Daniel -- Lou, Hua Jane -- Ottina, Kathleen -- Gray, Nathanael S -- Turk, Benjamin E -- Yaffe, Michael B -- Sabatini, David M -- AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA112967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ES015339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- GM59281/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jul 26;341(6144):1236566. doi: 10.1126/science.1236566.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23888043" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Motifs ; Amino Acids/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Culture Media ; Humans ; Mice ; Multiprotein Complexes ; Naphthyridines/pharmacology ; Peptides/chemistry/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Sirolimus/*pharmacology ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-07-22
    Description: Tumour oncogenes include transcription factors that co-opt the general transcriptional machinery to sustain the oncogenic state, but direct pharmacological inhibition of transcription factors has so far proven difficult. However, the transcriptional machinery contains various enzymatic cofactors that can be targeted for the development of new therapeutic candidates, including cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Here we present the discovery and characterization of a covalent CDK7 inhibitor, THZ1, which has the unprecedented ability to target a remote cysteine residue located outside of the canonical kinase domain, providing an unanticipated means of achieving selectivity for CDK7. Cancer cell-line profiling indicates that a subset of cancer cell lines, including human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), have exceptional sensitivity to THZ1. Genome-wide analysis in Jurkat T-ALL cells shows that THZ1 disproportionally affects transcription of RUNX1 and suggests that sensitivity to THZ1 may be due to vulnerability conferred by the RUNX1 super-enhancer and the key role of RUNX1 in the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of these tumour cells. Pharmacological modulation of CDK7 kinase activity may thus provide an approach to identify and treat tumour types that are dependent on transcription for maintenance of the oncogenic state.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4244910/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4244910/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kwiatkowski, Nicholas -- Zhang, Tinghu -- Rahl, Peter B -- Abraham, Brian J -- Reddy, Jessica -- Ficarro, Scott B -- Dastur, Anahita -- Amzallag, Arnaud -- Ramaswamy, Sridhar -- Tesar, Bethany -- Jenkins, Catherine E -- Hannett, Nancy M -- McMillin, Douglas -- Sanda, Takaomi -- Sim, Taebo -- Kim, Nam Doo -- Look, Thomas -- Mitsiades, Constantine S -- Weng, Andrew P -- Brown, Jennifer R -- Benes, Cyril H -- Marto, Jarrod A -- Young, Richard A -- Gray, Nathanael S -- CA109901/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA178860-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- HG002668/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS047572/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS047572-10/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA130876/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA130876-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA179483/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002668/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R21 CA178860/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008042/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG006097/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG006097-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 31;511(7511):616-20. doi: 10.1038/nature13393. Epub 2014 Jun 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3] Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [4]. ; 1] Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3]. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; 1] Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3] Blais Proteomics Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Medicine Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. ; 1] Department of Medicine Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA [2] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Terry Fox Laboratory, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada. ; 1] Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [2] Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 117599 Singapore. ; Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791, Korea, and KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, Korea. ; Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation, 2387 dalgubeol-daero, Suseong-gu, Daegu 706-010, Korea. ; 1] Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [2] Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 USA. ; 1] Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25043025" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation/drug effects ; Cell Survival/drug effects ; Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit/metabolism ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors ; Cysteine/metabolism ; Enzyme Inhibitors/*pharmacology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/*drug effects ; Humans ; Jurkat Cells ; Phenylenediamines/*pharmacology ; Phosphorylation/drug effects ; Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/*enzymology ; Pyrimidines/*pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Eukaryotic transcription activators stimulate the expression of specific sets of target genes through recruitment of co-activators such as the RNA polymerase II-interacting Mediator complex. Aberrant function of transcription activators has been implicated in several diseases. However, therapeutic targeting efforts have been hampered by a lack of detailed molecular knowledge of the mechanisms of gene activation by disease-associated transcription activators. We previously identified an activator-targeted three-helix bundle KIX domain in the human MED15 Mediator subunit that is structurally conserved in Gal11/Med15 Mediator subunits in fungi. The Gal11/Med15 KIX domain engages pleiotropic drug resistance transcription factor (Pdr1) orthologues, which are key regulators of the multidrug resistance pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the clinically important human pathogen Candida glabrata. The prevalence of C. glabrata is rising, partly owing to its low intrinsic susceptibility to azoles, the most widely used antifungal agent. Drug-resistant clinical isolates of C. glabrata most commonly contain point mutations in Pdr1 that render it constitutively active, suggesting that this transcriptional activation pathway represents a linchpin in C. glabrata multidrug resistance. Here we perform sequential biochemical and in vivo high-throughput screens to identify small-molecule inhibitors of the interaction of the C. glabrata Pdr1 activation domain with the C. glabrata Gal11A KIX domain. The lead compound (iKIX1) inhibits Pdr1-dependent gene activation and re-sensitizes drug-resistant C. glabrata to azole antifungals in vitro and in animal models for disseminated and urinary tract C. glabrata infection. Determining the NMR structure of the C. glabrata Gal11A KIX domain provides a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanism of Pdr1 gene activation and multidrug resistance inhibition by iKIX1. We have demonstrated the feasibility of small-molecule targeting of a transcription factor-binding site in Mediator as a novel therapeutic strategy in fungal infectious disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nishikawa, Joy L -- Boeszoermenyi, Andras -- Vale-Silva, Luis A -- Torelli, Riccardo -- Posteraro, Brunella -- Sohn, Yoo-Jin -- Ji, Fei -- Gelev, Vladimir -- Sanglard, Dominique -- Sanguinetti, Maurizio -- Sadreyev, Ruslan I -- Mukherjee, Goutam -- Bhyravabhotla, Jayaram -- Buhrlage, Sara J -- Gray, Nathanael S -- Wagner, Gerhard -- Naar, Anders M -- Arthanari, Haribabu -- EB002026/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- GM047467/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 25;530(7591):485-9. doi: 10.1038/nature16963. Epub 2016 Feb 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital Lausanne and University Hospital Center, Lausanne CH-1011, Switzerland. ; Institute of Microbiology, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome 00168, Italy. ; Institute of Public Health, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome 00168, Italy. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Sofia University, Sofia 1164, Bulgaria. ; Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India. ; Supercomputing Facility for Bioinformatics &Computational Biology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India. ; Kusuma School of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India. ; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26886795" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-06-11
    Description: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein kinase is a master growth promoter that nucleates two complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Despite the diverse processes controlled by mTOR, few substrates are known. We defined the mTOR-regulated phosphoproteome by quantitative mass spectrometry and characterized the primary sequence motif specificity of mTOR using positional scanning peptide libraries. We found that the phosphorylation response to insulin is largely mTOR dependent and that mTOR exhibits a unique preference for proline, hydrophobic, and aromatic residues at the +1 position. The adaptor protein Grb10 was identified as an mTORC1 substrate that mediates the inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase typical of cells lacking tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), a tumor suppressor and negative regulator of mTORC1. Our work clarifies how mTORC1 inhibits growth factor signaling and opens new areas of investigation in mTOR biology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3177140/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3177140/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hsu, Peggy P -- Kang, Seong A -- Rameseder, Jonathan -- Zhang, Yi -- Ottina, Kathleen A -- Lim, Daniel -- Peterson, Timothy R -- Choi, Yongmun -- Gray, Nathanael S -- Yaffe, Michael B -- Marto, Jarrod A -- Sabatini, David M -- AI47389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA112967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ES015339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- GM68762/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866-09/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105-05/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jun 10;332(6035):1317-22. doi: 10.1126/science.1199498.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21659604" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; GRB10 Adaptor Protein/*metabolism ; Humans ; Insulin/metabolism ; Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/*metabolism ; Mass Spectrometry ; Mice ; Multiprotein Complexes ; Naphthyridines/pharmacology ; Phosphoproteins/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Proteins/*metabolism ; Proteome/metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; Sirolimus/pharmacology ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Latent inhibition ; d-Amphetamine ; Schizophrenia ; Attention ; Man ; Lateralisation of function
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The performance of healthy volunteer subjects on an auditory latent inhibition (LI) paradigm was assessed following administration of a single oral dose ofd-amphetamine or placebo. It was predicted that a low (5 mg), but not a high (10 mg), dose ofd-amphetamine would disrupt LI. The prediction was supported with left ear presentation of the preexposed stimulus only. When the preexposed stimulus was presented to the right ear the predicted pattern of findings was not obtained. It is concluded that the dopaminergic system is involved in the mediation of LI in man and it is speculated that the interaction between amphetamine dose and ear of presentation of the preexposed stimulus may reflect normally occurring dopaminergic hemisphere asymmetry.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: The FGFR kinases are promising therapeutic targets in multiple cancer types, including lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and bladder cancer. Although several FGFR kinase inhibitors have entered clinical trials, single-agent clinical efficacy has been modest and resistance invariably occurs. We therefore conducted a genome-wide functional screen to characterize mechanisms of resistance to FGFR inhibition in a FGFR1 -dependent lung cancer cellular model. Our screen identified known resistance drivers, such as MET, and additional novel resistance mediators including members of the neurotrophin receptor pathway (NTRK), the TAM family of tyrosine kinases (TYRO3, MERTK, AXL), and MAPK pathway, which were further validated in additional FGFR-dependent models. In an orthogonal approach, we generated a large panel of resistant clones by chronic exposure to FGFR inhibitors in FGFR1- and FGFR3-dependent cellular models and characterized gene expression profiles employing the L1000 platform. Notably, resistant clones had enrichment for NTRK and MAPK signaling pathways. Novel mediators of resistance to FGFR inhibition were found to compensate for FGFR loss in part through reactivation of MAPK pathway. Intriguingly, coinhibition of FGFR and specific receptor tyrosine kinases identified in our screen was not sufficient to suppress ERK activity or to prevent resistance to FGFR inhibition, suggesting a redundant reactivation of RAS–MAPK pathway. Dual blockade of FGFR and MEK, however, proved to be a more powerful approach in preventing resistance across diverse FGFR dependencies and may represent a therapeutic opportunity to achieve durable responses to FGFR inhibition in FGFR-dependent cancers. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(7); 1526–39. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1535-7163
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-8514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Acquired ibrutinib resistance due to BTK Cys481 mutations occurs in B-cell malignancies, including those with MYD88 mutations. BTK Cys481 mutations are usually subclonal, and their relevance to clinical progression remains unclear. Moreover, the signaling pathways that promote ibrutinib resistance remain to be clarified. We therefore engineered BTK Cys481Ser and BTK WT expressing MYD88-mutated Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) and activated B-cell (ABC) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells and observed reactivation of BTK-PLC2-ERK1/2 signaling in the presence of ibrutinib in only the former. Use of ERK1/2 inhibitors triggered apoptosis in BTK Cys481Ser -expressing cells and showed synergistic cytotoxicity with ibrutinib. ERK1/2 reactivation in ibrutinib-treated BTK Cys481Ser cells was accompanied by release of many prosurvival and inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 that were also blocked by ERK1/2 inhibition. To clarify if cytokine release by ibrutinib-treated BTK Cys481Ser cells could protect BTK WT MYD88-mutated malignant cells, we used a Transwell coculture system and showed that nontransduced BTK WT MYD88-mutated WM or ABC DLBCL cells were rescued from ibrutinib-induced killing when cocultured with BTK Cys481Ser but not their BTK WT -expressing counterparts. Use of IL-6 and/or IL-10 blocking antibodies abolished the protective effect conferred on nontransduced BTK WT by coculture with BTK Cys481Ser expressing WM or ABC DLBCL cell counterparts. Rebound of IL-6 and IL-10 serum levels also accompanied disease progression in WM patients with acquired BTK Cys481 mutations. Our findings show that the BTK Cys481Ser mutation drives ibrutinib resistance in MYD88-mutated WM and ABC DLBCL cells through reactivation of ERK1/2 and can confer a protective effect on BTK WT cells through a paracrine mechanism.
    Keywords: Lymphoid Neoplasia
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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