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  • 1
    Keywords: Biochemistry ; Cytology ; Neurosciences ; Biochemistry, general ; Biological and Medical Physics, Biophysics ; Cell Biology ; Neurosciences ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter 1.A look at functions that emerge from small numbers -- Chapter 2.Neuronal synaptic connections organized by small numbers of molecules -- Chapter 3.Invasions of small numbers: how many virus particles does it take to infect someone with the flu? -- Chapter 4.Rebellion by the minority: prophecies by molecules on paper and computers -- Chapter 5.The personality of small numbers: do molecules have personality? -- Chapter 6.Distinguishing and searching for minority cells: small in number, but large in effect -- Chapter 7.Digital bioanalysis -- Chapter 8.How small numbers of long genomic DNA are stored in cells -- Chapter 9.Formation by small numbers: minority biological scenarios in correlations among the structure, dynamics, and function of nuclear chromosomes -- Chapter 10.Dividing small numbers: the discreteness and distribution of molecules in the cell membrane -- Chapter 11.Getting to know the functions of small numbers -- Chapter 12.Working in small numbers: The behaviors that emerge when small numbers of bionanomachines team up -- Chapter 13.Thinking small numbers: when, where, and how many molecules there are in the cell -- Chapter 14.Determining small numbers: how the number of flagella is determined -- Chapter 15.Controlling production with small numbers: precision apparatuses made of proteins at work in bacteria -- Chapter 16.Organisms that function with small numbers of molecules -- Chapter 17.How low can you go? The numbers of cells that make up bodies: large numbers and small numbers -- Chapter 18.The flow of time inside the cell: the time of days given by molecules driving the circadian clocks
    Abstract: This book provides an accessible introduction to an exciting new field of life science in which the focus is on small numbers of molecules and minorities within cell populations and their significance for the understanding of biological phenomena. Numbers, or quantitative data, are attracting more attention in cell biology following, for example, determination of the absolute copy number of each protein species in each bacterial cell and the recognition of leader cells that drive collective cell migration. Within this context, the authors present recent advances in experimental techniques, biological findings, and theories. A variety of cutting-edge topics and issues are addressed, with explanation of the ways in which recent developments in the field cast light on seemingly straightforward but difficult-to-answer questions. Readers will learn that we are on the verge of a paradigm shift as the importance of cooperation among groups of molecules in live cells is acknowledged. The book is designed to be enjoyable to read and easy to understand. It will be of interest for a wide range of readers, including young researchers and undergraduate/high school students
    Pages: XII, 150 p. 48 illus., 1 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9789811320835
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  • 2
    Keywords: Medicine ; Gene Expression ; Gene Therapy ; Medical virology ; Biomedicine ; Virology ; Gene Therapy ; Gene Expression ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 1. Reverse genetics of Mononegavirales: the rabies virus paradigm Karl-Klaus Conzelmann -- ℗ 2. Sendai virus biology and engineering leading up to the development of a novel class of expression vector Yoshiyuki Nagai and Atsushi Kato -- ℗ 3. Concept and technology underlying Sendai virus (SeV) vector development Akihiro Iida and Makoto Inoue -- ℗ 4. Roadmap for development of a replication-deficient Sendai virus vaccine vector (provisional) Marian Wiegand and Wolfgang Neubert -- ℗ 5. Development of vaccines using SeV vectors against AIDS and other infectious diseases Sayuri Seki and Tetsuro Matano -- ℗ 6. BioKnife, a modified Sendai virus, to resect malignant tomors Yoshikazu Yonemitsu, Yasuji Ueda and Mamoru Hasegawa -- ℗ 7. Induction of human pluripotent stem cells by the Sendai virus vector:Establishment of a highly efficient and foot-print free system Noemi Fusaki and Hiroshi Ban -- ℗ 8. Gene therapy for peripheral arterial disease using Sendai virus vector: From preclinical Studies to the phase I/IIa clinical trial Yoshikazu Yonemitsu, Takuya Matsumoto and Yoshihiko Maehara
    Abstract: Sendai virus (SeV) is not just a mouse pathogen but is evolving into a cutting-edge component of biotechnology. SeV reverse genetics originating from a pure academic need to settle long-held questions in the biology and pathogenicity of nonsegmented negative strand RNA viruses (Mononegavirales) is about to bear the impressive fruit of multipurpose cytoplasmic (non-integrating) RNA vectors. This book brings together in one source the SeV biology revealed by conventional approaches and reverse genetics, the methods to construct the first-generation SeV vector and to generate safer versions, and the applications in medical settings that have left or are about to leave the laboratory bench. The applications, which already are diverse and have high medical impact, include use as vaccine vectors against AIDS and respiratory virus infections, creation of BioKnife to resect malignant tumors, induction of “footprint (transgene) free” pluripotent stem cells, and gene therapy for peripheral arterial disease. These achievements—which are just a few of many examples—were attainable only after rigorously incorporating the rich knowledge of SeV biology that has accumulated during the several decades since the discovery of the virus. Application of SeV vector is certain to expand greatly because of its extremely high performance in transgene expression and its remarkable target cell breadth
    Pages: XII, 210 p. 33 illus., 17 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9784431545569
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Key words Unchanged cisplatin ; Nephrotoxicity ; Pharmacokinetics ; Pharmacodynamics ; Maximum plasma concentration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Purpose: The relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters of unchanged cisplatin (CDDP) and several markers for nephrotoxicity after CDDP infusion (80 mg/m2) over 2 and 4 h were quantitated in patients with various cancers (lung, stomach and colon cancers and mediastinal tumor). Methods: Plasma and urinary levels of unchanged CDDP were measured using a specific high-performance liquid chromatography method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated according to the model-independent method. The nephrotoxicity markers, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), plasma and urinary β2-microglobulin (BMGp and BMGu), urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and creatinine clearance (CCR) were monitored for 30 days following CDDP administration. Results: The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), maximum urinary excretion rate (dAe/dtmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC), cumulative amount excreted in urine from time zero to infinity (Ae), total clearance (Clt), renal clearance (Clr) and plasma half-life (t1/2) of unchanged CDDP were not significantly different between the 2-h and 4-h infusion schedules. The values of the nephrotoxicity markers changed significantly following CDDP administration, suggesting that CDDP chemotherapy (80 mg/m2) caused nephrotoxicity. The Cmax of unchanged CDDP was the most informative pharmacokinetic parameter for nephrotoxicity. Cmax was related to maximum BUN, maximum SCr and minimum CCR levels in 27 CDDP treatments according to an exponential model. Conclusion: In order to attain more effective CDDP chemotherapy with minimum nephrotoxicity, the present pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies suggest that the Cmax or steady-state plasma level of unchanged CDDP should be maintained between 1.5 and 2 μg/ml in a standard continuous infusion schedule over 2 h and 4 h.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Experimental Cell Research 15 (1958), S. 623-624 
    ISSN: 0014-4827
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Nasal arteriole ; Noradrenaline ; Methacholine ; Isoproterenol ; Scanning electron microscope
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Morphological changes in nasal blood vessels induced by α- and β-adrenergic and cholinergic agonists were studied under a scanning electron microscope after removal of extracellular connective tissue and the basal lamina. Arterioles were constricted and dilatated following topical application of α-adrenergic and cholinergic agonists. Distinctive morphological changes were observed on their smooth muscle cells. Smooth muscle cells of constricted arterioles had a rugged surface with numerous fine invaginations. However, in dilatated arterioles the cells had a smooth surface and intercellular spaces were clearly revealed. No remarkable changes were produced in smooth muscle cells by the β-adrenergic agonist. It is concluded that nasal arterioles are sensitive to α-adrenergic and cholinergic stimulation but not to β-adrenergic stimulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Tympanic membrane ; Sensory innervation ; Anesthesia ; Eustachian tube function
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In our previous histological studies of the tympanic membrane, we reported the presence of encapsulated nerve corpuscles that are capable of detecting middle ear pressure. Based on these findings, the relation between sensory receptors in the tympanic membrane and tubal function was examined in a clinical study. Tubal function was tested during Valsalva maneuvers and its active equilibration. Function was recorded as a change of the static compliance of the tympanic membrane on an otoadmittance meter. To paralyze the sensory receptors in the tympanic membrane, iontophoresis was used to induce anesthesia of the drum. Forty ears of 20 subjects were tested. All ears were able to equalize positive middle ear pressure without or with a single swallowing. After anesthesia, 13 ears needed more than two swallows and 4 ears failed to equalize middle ear pressure in spite of repeated swallowings. As eustachian tube function changed following anesthesia of the tympanic membranes, a neural connection between sensory receptors in the tympanic membrane and tubual muscles is suggested.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Nasenschleimhaut ; Nasendrüse ; Gefäß ; SEM ; Nasal mucosa ; Nasal gland ; Blood vessels ; Scanning electron microscope
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The trypsin-HCl method of Uehara was applied to the respiratory nasal mucosa of rats and guinea pigs, and the stereoscopic surface view of the nasal glands, vessels, and associated nerve fibers were observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The terminal portion of the glands was composed of glandular cells and myoepithelial cells, the latter were starfishlike features and extended thin cytoplasmic processes which covered the small area of the terminal portion. The arterioles and venules could be clearly distinguished by their adventitial aspects and innervation pattern. Arterioles were occasionally connected to small arterioles with a characteristic structure, which seemed to play a role in the regulation of peripheral blood supply.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Tripsin-HCl Methode von Uehara wurde an der respiratorischen Nasenschleimhaut der Ratte und des Meerschweinchens angewendet und das oberflächliche Aussehen der Drüsen, der Gefäße und der begleitenden Nervenfasern wurde rasterelektronenmikroskopisch betrachtet. Der terminale Abschnitt der Drüsen besteht aus Drüsen- und Myoepithelialzellen. Die letzteren sind sternförmig und bedecken mit dünnen zytoplasmatischen Fortsätzen den terminalen Drüsenabschnitt. Die Arteriolen und Venolen lassen sich auf Grund des charakteristischen Aussehens der Zellen der glatten Muskulatur und des Innervationsmusters leicht unterscheiden. Die Arteriolen sind gelegentlich mit Arteriolen besonderer Struktur verbunden. Dies scheint eine wichtige Rolle bei der Regulation der peripheren Blutversorgung zu spielen.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: AVA ; Nasal mucosa ; SEM
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Arteriovenous anastomosis (AVA) in nasal respiratory mucosa of humans and guinea pigs were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after removal of extracellular connective tissues by tryptic digestion and HCl hydrolysis. The shape of AVA in humans is different from that in guinea pigs. In guinea pigs, it is simple with no specific structure observed on the vessels. In humans, it is characterized by a spherical swelling at the intermediate segment. The Tunica media of the spherical body is formed by the aggregation of spindle-shaped cells and receives a rich nerve supply. These findings suggest powerful contractility of human AVA compared with guinea pigs. Arteriovenous anastomosis in human nasal respiratory mucosa may strongly influence arterial blood flow into the cavernosus sinusoid and determine the characteristic microcirculatory pattern in human nasal mucosa.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Salivary glands ; Scanning electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We examined human submandibular gland parenchyma by scanning electron microscopy after removal of connective tissue components by HCl hydrolysis. Stellate-shaped myoepithelial cells and basal infoldings were clearly seen, indicating active function of the gland.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Schnecke ; Stria vascularis ; Prominentia spiralis ; Sulcus externus ; Rasterelektronenmikroskopie ; Cochlea ; Stria vascularis ; Spiral prominence ; External sulcus ; Scanning electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The stria vascularis and the spiral prominence in the lateral cochlear wall were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after dissolving out the epithelial layer and the basement membrane by tryptic digestion and HCl hydrolysis. The external sulcus cells have regularly arranged pegs and a fine basal interdigitation on the cell surface. The strial vessel and the spiral prominence vessel could be visualized well and the characteristic surface view of their periendothelial cells presented. The former has cytoplasmic processes with a fine branching appearance similar to red coral and the latter has bulged popcorn like processes. Their functional significance is discussed.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Betrachtung der Stria vascularis und der Prominentia spiralis im Rasterelektronenmikroskop und die Darstellung der strukturellen Besonderheiten sowohl der Zellen als auch der Gefäße.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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