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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Signet ring cell carcinoma ; Stomach ; Cell differentiation ; Histochemistry ; Intestinal metaplasia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Recent developments in mucin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry have made reliable determination of the gastric and intestinal phenotypes of gastric carcinoma cells possible. Phenotypic expression changes from gastric epithelial cell type to intestinal epithelial cell type with the growth of gastric tumours in experimental animals. We studied cell differentiation in gastric signet ring cell carcinomas with progression in 203 surgically obtained specimens. The results showed that the proportion of gastric phenotype carcinomas, in which over 90% of the tissue consists of gastric epithelial cell type cells, decreases with the depth of invasion. The proportion of mixed phenotype carcinomas (between 10% and 90% of the tissue made up of gastric and/or intestinal epithelial cell type cells) increases. The intestinal phenotype (over 90% intestinal epithelial cell type carcinoma cells) was found in four carcinomas (about 2%) involving the serosa. No clear relationship was evident between phenotypic expression of carcinoma cells and the degree of intestinal metaplasia of the surrounding mucosa. Progression of gastric signet ring cell carcinomas is associated with a phenotypic shift from gastric to intestinal type expression.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. There has been a trend toward stomach conservation during treatment for primary gastric lymphoma, but surgery ensures accurate pathologic diagnosis through the examination of resected specimens. A histopathologic classification for primary gastric lymphoma had been established with the knowledge that the low grade and high grade components occasionally coexist in a single lesion. Efficacy of this classification as an indicator of biologic behavior and prognosis was evaluated. The classification was performed by reexamining surgically resected specimens from 82 patients with stage IE and IIE gastric lymphoma. Clinical characteristics of the low grade and high grade lymphomas were then evaluated and the survival data analyzed. Despite the larger tumor diameter, the depth of invasion for the low grade type was mostly submucosal, and none had serosal invasion. In contrast, 50% of the high grade type had serosal involvement and were also found to have a higher incidence of node metastasis. Prognosis of the low grade type, a 10-year survival rate exceeding 90%, was significantly better than that of the high grade type. Multivariate analysis revealed that curability of the operation followed by the histopathologic grade were significant independent prognostic factors. Some characteristics of the low grade lymphoma were not consistent with what has been reported in the studies involving stomach-conserving strategies. Investigators are advised to note that the histopathologic grade determined with biopsy specimens alone could be misleading.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Interdigitating cell sarcoma ; Eosinophilic inclusion ; Electron microscopy Membrane complex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In this histo-pathological follow-up study of a case of interdigitating cell sarcoma, intracytoplasmic membrane complexes were seen by electron microscopy within the neoplastic cells. These complexes might correspond to the eosinophilic inclusions seen in the tumour cells by light microscopy; they were not identified in the initial lymph node lesion. Recently, these structures have been found to be a variation of microtubuloreticular complexes. To our knowledge, they have not been previously described in interdigitating cell sarcoma. Their significance remains obscure.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Interdigitating cell sarcoma ; Monoclonal antibodies ; Gene rearrangements ; Ki-1 antigen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Three independent mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) ID1 (IgG3), ID2 and ID3 (IgM) were raised against whole cells of a surgically resected human interdigitating cell sarcoma (ICS). In immunoperoxidase staining, these mAbs strongly stained the cytoplasm of ICS neoplastic cells as well as interdigitating cells in normal lymphoid tissues. These mAbs also detected monocyte/ macrophages and dendritic cells, although their staining was highly variable depending on tissue distribution of the cells. Additional immuno-histological and enzyme histochemical study revealed that the neoplastic cells of ICS had cytoplasmic acid phosphatase and membranous alkaline phosphatase activity, and also possessed S100fβ protein, Ki-1 antigen, DAKO-macrophage antigen, and weak vimentin activity. Neither rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene nor of T-cell receptor genes was detected in the DNA of ICS by Southern hybridization. These observations provide further confirmation of our previous finding (Nakamura et al. 1988, 1989) that the origin of ICS is interdigitating rather than lymphoid cell, and indicate that our mAbs could be useful as a cellular differentiation marker of interdigitating cells and for diagnosis of ICS.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Rat heart ; T system ; Morphology ; Morphometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The three dimensional arrangements of the T system in the developing and adult animal were investigated by means of high voltage electron microscope stereoscopy using Golgi treated materials. The rat myocardial T system was composed of three major group elements: the transverse tubules, longitudinal tubules and flattened cisternae, which were classified according to their orientation and to their morphological features. It was found, as the growth of the rats proceeded, that the longitudinal tubules increased creased in number and that the transverse tubules were arranged more regularly and densely at the level of the z-band. The flattened cisternae transiently increased in number during the 2–9 weeks, and then decreased gradually. Electron microscopy also revealed that all the transverse, longitudinal tubules and flattened cisternae of the T system had the chance of forming a coupling with the sarcoplasmic reticulum irrespective of its morphology and orientation to the myofibrils. Quantitative analysis of the rat T system from the stereo images indicated that the surface area (0.299 μm2/μm3) was considerably greater than previously reported.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Spontaneous hypertensive rat ; Myocardium ; Transverse tubular system ; High voltage electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We reported previously on a modified Golgi stain that, in conjunction with high voltage electron microscope stereoscopy, gives striking views of the elaborate network of the transverse tubular system (T system) in rat myocardium. In this report we used the same techniques to study three-dimensional arrangements of the T system in the left ventricular myocardium of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). High voltage electron microscope stereoscopy revealed distinctive morphological characteristics of the T system, such as undulating running, short dead-end branches, and labyrinth-like tubular aggregates in the hypertrophic myocardium of SHR. Quantitative analysis of the SHR T system indicated a surface area greater than that of WKY. These findings may support the hypothesis that making an additional T system membrane will compensate for the smaller surface-to-volume ratio. However, the normal regulatory mechanism required to maintain the surface-to-volume ratio does not function properly in SHR, resulting in morphological abnormalities and functional disturbances of the myocardium.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background:  The roles of several foods and beverages in the development of bladder cancer remain unclear.Methods:  We undertook a hospital-based case-control study at Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Japan. Subjects included 124 men and women (bladder cancer cases) with newly diagnosed cancers of the renal pelvis (n = 5), ureter (n = 6) or bladder (n = 113) and 620 age- and sex-matched, cancer-free outpatients (controls) presenting at the hospital in the period from 1994 to 2000. Smoking-adjusted odds ratios (OR) were estimated to assess the strength of associations between self-reported intake of foods or drinks and bladder cancer risk, using conditional logistic models.Results:  We found a decreased risk in relation to frequent intake of green–yellow vegetables; the OR for the highest intake score compared with the lowest was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29–0.99). The OR for carrot intake of ≥5 times/week compared with ≤1–3 times/month was 0.41 (95% CI 0.16–1.01) and a decreasing risk with increasing consumption of green vegetables was also detected (P for trend = 0.063). Inverse associations between black tea, eggs and meat and risk were also suggested, whereas moderate drinkers of green tea (5–9 cups/day) showed an elevated risk. Coffee and milk consumption did not appear to exert any influence.Conclusions:  Those with an increased risk of bladder cancer, such as smokers, may benefit from increasing their consumption of green–yellow vegetables.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objective:  The present study investigated the presence of ET-1 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from patients with periodontitis, and the expression of endothelins (ETs) and their receptors mRNA in cultured cells from human periodontal tissues.Background:  ET was originally discovered as a potent vasoconstrictive peptide from endothelial cells. It has been reported that ETs are produced by various cells besides endothelial cells. ETs are related to inflammatory and sclerotic lesions, such as arteriolosclerosis and hepatic cirrhosis. Therefore, ETs may be involved in periodontal disease. However, the roles of ETs in development and progression of periodontal disease are not clear.Methods:  ET-1 released from the cultured cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. mRNA expressions for ETs and their receptors were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blotting analysis.Results:  ET-1 levels in GCF from patients with periodontitis were higher than those from healthy subjects. Human gingival keratinocytes (HGK) expressed mRNA for ETs and their receptors, ET-Ar and ET-Br. ET-1 mRNA expression and ET-1 peptide production from HGK were enhanced by interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α.Conclusions:  These results suggest that ET-1 plays a significant role in periodontal disease.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1520-5118
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  Osteonectin/secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is expressed in periodontal ligaments. Therefore, a better understanding of the action of SPARC on periodontal ligament cells could help to elucidate remodelling and repair mechanisms in periodontal tissue. In the present study, we examined the effects of human platelet-derived SPARC (hp-SPARC) on the expressions of SPARC and osteoprotegerin/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OPG/OCIF), alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) production and DNA synthesis in cultures of human periodontal ligament (HPL) cells.Methods:  HPL cells at the sixth passage were exposed to hp-SPARC. The expression of OPG/OCIF and SPARC mRNAs was examined by Northern blot analysis. The protein levels for OPG/OCIF and MMP-2 were determined by Western blot analysis. ALPase activity was measured by the method of Bessey et al. DNA synthesis was estimated by incorporation of [3H]thymidine.Results:  Hp-SPARC enhanced OPG/OCIF synthesis at the protein and mRNA levels. Hp-SPARC also enhanced DNA and MMP-2 synthesis dose-dependently, but had little effect on ALPase activity and SPARC mRNA expression.Conclusion:  SPARC may play a role in remodelling and repair of periodontal tissue by promoting proliferation and MMP-2 production. It may also regulate osteoclast formation through OPG/OCIF in periodontal ligament cells.
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