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  • 1
    ISSN: 0378-1119
    Keywords: Gene cloning ; Southern blot ; cation transport ; chromosomal deletion ; fnr ; hydrogenase ; in vivo expression ; nikA ; nikB ; recombinant DNA ; traffic ATPase
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a syndrome characterized by familial predisposition to colorectal carcinoma and extracolonic cancers of the gastrointestinal, urological, and female reproductive tracts. This dominant disorder is caused by germline defects in one of at least five DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes: hMLH1, hMSH2, hPMS1, hPMS2, and hMSH6 (GTBP). Germline mutations of hMSH2 and hMLH1 are also frequently identified in families not fulfilling all the Amsterdam criteria, thereby demonstrating that the involvement of these genes is not confined to typical HNPCC. To evaluate the respective involvement of the various MMR genes in typical and incomplete HNPCC syndromes, we have performed an analysis of the hMLH1, hMSH2, hPMS1, hPMS2, and hMSH6 genes in a large series of French kindreds (n=75) with colorectal tumors and/or aggregation of extracolonic cancers belonging to the HNPCC spectrum. Mutational analysis has been performed in all families, without preselection for the tumor phenotype. We have detected 26 pathogenic germline mutations of the hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes and several novel variants of the hPMS1, hPMS2, and hMSH6 genes. Our data confirm that, regardless of the type of families and the tumor phenotype, hPMS1, hPMS2, and hMSH6 germline mutations are rare in familial aggregation of colorectal cancers. Furthermore, they suggest that the presence of multiple primary malignancies in a single individual and the observation of extracolonic tumors in relatives of a colorectal cancer patient should be included among the guidelines for referring patients for genetic testing.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Utrophin ; Dystrophin-related protein ; Muscular dystrophies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The immunohistochemical expression of utrophin in 80 muscle biopsies from patients with dystrophinopathies and other neuromuscular disorders is reported. All biopsy specimens were routinely studied by a battery of 12 histoenzymatic techniques, and immunohistochemistry was performed for spectrin, three domains of dystrophin and two domains of utrophin. Abnormal utrophin expression was observed in all dystrophinopathic muscles compared with normal controls or biopsy samples from several other muscular diseases. Inflammatory myopathies presented abnormal overexpression of utrophin and an abnormal dystrophin immunolabeling pattern. This overexpression of utrophin appears to be directly related to the decrease in dystrophin. We conclude that the study of utrophin is important for the histological interpretation and differential diagnosis of dystrophin-related muscular disorders.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Tangle ; Nodule ; Cortical development ; Ischemia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Verrucose dysplasias, found at autopsy in the cerebral cortex of three elderly individuals (two without neurological disorders and one with motor neuron disease), are shown to present neurofibrillary degeneration of Alzheimer's disease type. This neurofibrillary degeneration immunoreacted with antibodies against abnormally phosphorylated tau (5E2 and AT8), disclosed acetyland butyrylcholinesterase activity, and was consistently stained with thioflavin-S. Cortical dysplasias, found either as isolated verrucose nodules or comprising multiple nodules, contained cell-sparse areas around which a peak of neurofibrillary changes was seen. Cell-sparse areas were sometimes bridged by stripes of neurons and fibers arranged in a radial fashion, and many of these neurons showed neurofibrillary degeneration. Cytoskeletal abnormalities were conspicuous in layers II and III at the external borders of the dysplasias, as well as in neurons located in layers V and VI, and in the white matter beneath layer VI in central zones of each lesion. The morphology of cells undergoing neurofibrillary changes (from early nonfibrillar stages to late extracellular ones) suggests that neurons disturbed in their migration toward the site to which they had been committed may become vulnerable to cytoskeletal changes. Micro-environmental disturbances related to hypoxia-ischemia in the affected cortex are proposed as likely contributing factors for the longterm production of this neurofibrillary degeneration.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Tangle ; Nodule ; Cortical development ; Ischemia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Verrucose dysplasias, found at autopsy in the cerebral cortex of three elderly individuals (two without neurological disorders and one with motor neuron disease), are shown to present neurofibrillary degeneration of Alzheimer's disease type. This neurofibrillary degeneration immunoreacted with antibodies against abnormally phosphorylated tau (5E2 and AT8), disclosed acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase activity, and was consistently stained with thioflavin-S. Cortical dysplasias, found either as isolated verrucose nodules or comprising multiple nodules, contained cell-sparse areas around which a peak of neurofibrillary changes was seen. Cell-sparse areas were sometimes bridged by stripes of neurons and fibers arranged in a radial fashion, and many of these neurons showed neurofibrillary degeneration. Cytoskeletal abnormalities were conspicuous in layers II and III at the external borders of the dysplasias, as well as in neurons located in layers V and VI, and in the white matter beneath layer VI in central zones of each lesion. The morphology of cells undergoing neurofibrillary changes (from early non-fibrillar stages to late extracellular ones) suggests that neurons disturbed in their migration toward the site to which they had been committed may become vulnerable to cytoskeletal changes. Micro-environmental disturbances related to hypoxia-ischemia in the affected cortex are proposed as likely contributing factors for the long-term production of this neurofibrillary degeneration.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: MPS I-S ; Skin biopsy ; Ultrastructure ; Bone marrow transplant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An 11-year-old girl with mucopolysaccharidosis I Scheie phenotype (MPS I-S) received a bone marrow transplant (BMT) from her heterozygous HLA-identical LMC-non-reactive mother. Multidisciplinary studies were carried out and results evaluated 21 months after transplantation. Herein we report the ultrastructural findings pre-and post-BMT in skin. Multidisciplinary studies are commonly used to evaluate the benefits of metabolic correction following BMT in some MPS and other inherited metabolic disorders, and changes in morphology have been described in liver and few other tissues. In this case, we elected skin, since connective tissue is universally involved in MPS and is safely and easily obtainable. Comparison of skin biopsy specimens taken before and after BMT showed a considerable change in dermal fibroblast morphology, with marked reduction in cell size and the number and size of abnormal lysosomes, thus indicating the clearance of storage. Our results demonstrate that dermal cells respond to enzyme replacement therapy in MPS I-S, with the clearance of glycosaminoglycan lysosomal accumulation in connective tissue fibroblasts, which had near-normal morphology 21 months after BMT. Therefore, the practice of skin biopsy after BMT in MPS and other metabolic disorders in which dermal cells are involved should be encouraged.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Mucopolysaccharidosis I Scheie phenotype ; Bone marrow transplantation ; Fibroblasts ; Stereologic analysis ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been used therapeutically in several types of mucopoly-saccharidoses (MPS) and other inherited metabolic disorders. Fibroblasts are severely affected in MPS due to the intralysosomal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. We report a stereological and morphometric study at light and electron microscopy levels of dermal fibroblasts before and 21 months after BMT in a young girl with MPS I Scheie phenotype (MPS I-S). Dermal fibroblasts showed remarkable morphological changes although their density, expressed as number of fibroblasts per unit volume of dermis (number density), was not modified in the post-BMT samples as compared to pre-BMT ones. Stereological and morphometric parameters referring to cell characteristics of post-BMT fibroblasts (nuclear and cell surface densities, and both nucleus/cell and cell/nucleus volume densities) showed significant differences when compared with pre-BMT fibroblasts, and non-significant differences regarding control cells. On the other hand, quantitative parameters of the lysosomal compartment from post-BMT fibroblasts showed intermediate values between pre-BMT and control fibroblasts. These results, at cellular level, are in agreement with previous biochemical and clinical results, and clearly showed a progressive course to a non-pathological state. All parameters estimated may be considered useful tools in evaluating the success of BMT. These parameters provide quantitative data which can be statistically compared, showing the changes due to the reduction of storage material after BMT. Cell/nucleus volume density is especially interesting since not only is it easy to estimate, even by automatic procedures, but it could also constitute a numerical expression of skin anatomopathological analyses performed post-BMT.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9039
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé On étudie l'existence et l'unicité des solutions des équations qui gouvernent les petites déformations thermoélastiques superposés à un procés thermomécanique non linéaire général. Le problème est résolu à l'aide de la théorie des semigroupes apliquée à l'équation abstraite non homogène.
    Notes: Summary Existence and uniqueness of solutions to the evolution equations which govern small thermoelastic deformations superposed on a general non-linear thermomechanical deformation is investigated. The problem is solved by means of the semigroup theory applied to the abstract temporally inhomogeneous equation arising in this case.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Journal of natural products 49 (1986), S. 558-560 
    ISSN: 1520-6025
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 80 (2002), S. 1462-1464 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In this letter, a method is presented to perform current versus voltage measurements on carbon nanotubes using the tip of a scanning force microscope as an electrode that can be positioned along the molecule. This method allows current versus voltage measurements to be carried out at any spot along a nanotube. By using this method, we present indications of ballistic transport in carbon nanotubes, as well as effects in the electrical properties due to the mechanical deformation. This is a general technique that can be applied to any conducting nanowire. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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