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  • 1
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with large HCCs (median diameter 7 cm, IQR 5-10 cm) with a Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score A (60%) or B (40%) and Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification stage B or C were treated with 3 to 12 fractions to allow personalized treatment according to the size of the lesions and the proximity of the lesions to the organs at risk aiming to give high biologically equivalent doses assuming an alpha/beta ratio of 10 Gy for HCC. Primary end points were in-field local control and toxicity assessment. RESULTS: Forty seven patients with 64 lesions were treated with SBRT (median 45 Gy in 3-12 fractions) with a median follow up for patients alive of 19 months. The median biological effective dose was 76 Gy (IQR 62-86 Gy). Tumor vascular thrombosis was present in 28% and an underlying liver disease in 87% (hepatitis B or C in 21%, alcohol related in 51%, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in 13% of the patients, primary biliary cirrhosis 2%). Eighty three percent received prior and in most cases multiple therapies. Local control at 1 year was 77%. The median overall survival from the start of SBRT was 9 months (95% CI 7.7-10.3). Gastrointestinal toxicities grade 〉/= 2 were observed in 3 (6.4%) patients. An increase in CTP score without disease progression was observed in 5 patients, of whom one patient developed a radiation induced liver disease. One patient died due to liver failure 4 months after treatment. CONCLUSION: SBRT is an effective local ablative therapy which leads to high local control rates with moderate toxicity for selected patients with large tumors.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28701219
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Definition of gross tumor volume (GTV) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) requires dedicated imaging in multiple contrast medium phases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interobserver agreement (IOA) in gross tumor delineation of HCC in a multicenter panel. METHODS: The analysis was performed within the "Stereotactic Radiotherapy" working group of the German Society for Radiation Oncology (DEGRO). The GTVs of three anonymized HCC cases were delineated by 16 physicians from nine centers using multiphasic CT scans. In the first case the tumor was well defined. The second patient had multifocal HCC (one conglomerate and one peripheral tumor) and was previously treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). The peripheral lesion was adjacent to the previous TACE site. The last patient had an extensive HCC with a portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and an inhomogeneous liver parenchyma due to cirrhosis. The IOA was evaluated according to Landis and Koch. RESULTS: The IOA for the first case was excellent (kappa: 0.85); for the second case moderate (kappa: 0.48) for the peripheral tumor and substantial (kappa: 0.73) for the conglomerate. In the case of the peripheral tumor the inconsistency is most likely explained by the necrotic tumor cavity after TACE caudal to the viable tumor. In the last case the IOA was fair, with a kappa of 0.34, with significant heterogeneity concerning the borders of the tumor and the PVT. CONCLUSION: The IOA was very good among the cases were the tumor was well defined. In complex cases, where the tumor did not show the typical characteristics, or in cases with Lipiodol (Guerbet, Paris, France) deposits, IOA agreement was compromised.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28695316
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  • 3
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of ablative radiotherapy doses in the treatment of hilar or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). METHODS: Consecutive patients treated from 2007 to 2016 with CCC were evaluated. Local control and toxicities were assessed every 3 months according to the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0, respectively. Overall survival (OS), local control (LC) and progression free survival were calculated from SBRT. RESULTS: Thirty seven patients with 43 lesions were retrospectively evaluated. The median dose delivered was 45 Gy (range 25-66 Gy) in 3-12 fractions, corresponding to a median equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD210) of 56 (range 25-85) Gy. The median follow up was 24 months. The OS at 1 year was 56% with a median OS of 14 (95% CI: 7.8-20.2) months from start of SBRT and 22 (95% CI: 17.5-26.5) months from diagnosis. Eight lesions progressed locally. The local control rate (LC) at 1 year was 78%. The median progression free survival was 9 months (95% CI 2.8-15.2) 21 patients progressed in the liver but out of field and 15 progressed distantly. SBRT was well tolerated. Three patients (9%) developed a Grade III bleeding. Seven patients developed a cholangitis, one due to progression and the other because of a stent dysfunction 2-21(median 8) months from SBRT. CONCLUSION: In patients with locally advanced cholangiocarcinoma, SBRT is a local treatment option with an acceptable toxicity profile which warrants further investigation in prospective trials.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29162055
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