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  • 1
    Abstract: Many clinical features of lung cancer are different in women and men. Sex steroid hormones exert effects in nonreproductive organs, such as the lungs. The association between menstrual and childbearing factors and the risk of lung cancer among women is still debated. We performed a pooled analysis of eight studies contributing to the International Lung Cancer Consortium (4,386 cases and 4,177 controls). Pooled associations between menstrual or reproductive factors and lung cancer were estimated using multivariable unconditional logistic regression. Subgroup analyses were done for menopause status, smoking habits and histology. We found no strong support for an association of age at menarche and at menopause with lung cancer, but peri/postmenopausal women were at higher risk compared to premenopausal (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.11-1.93). Premenopausal women showed increased risks associated with parity (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.03-2.93) and number of children (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.21-6.93 for more than 3 children; p for trend 0.01) and decreased with breastfeeding (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.30-0.98). In contrast, peri/postmenopausal subjects had ORs around unity for the same exposures. No major effect modification was exerted by smoking status or cancer histology. Menstrual and reproductive factors may play a role in the genesis of lung cancer, yet the mechanisms are unclear, and smoking remains the most important modifiable risk factor. More investigations in large well-designed studies are needed to confirm these findings and to clarify the underlying mechanisms of gender differences in lung cancer risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28440542
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; EXPOSURE ; HISTORY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; PATIENT ; IMPACT ; CARCINOGENESIS ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; NO ; SNP ; etiology ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; PATHOGENESIS ; DAMAGE ; GENOTYPES ; NATURAL-HISTORY ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; SUPEROXIDE ; mesothelioma ; ASBESTOS EXPOSURE ; OXYGEN ; molecular epidemiology ; SINGLE ; ONCOLOGY ; REGRESSION ; RE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; GSTM1 ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; analysis ; GENOTYPE ; single-nucleotide ; technique ; TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ; USA ; INCREASED RISK ; UNIT ; manganese ; XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM ; LOGISTIC-REGRESSION ; GENETIC-SUSCEPTIBILITY ; superoxide dismutase ; genetic glutathione transferase
    Abstract: Individual response to oxidative stress, due to exposure to asbestos fibres plays a significant role in the malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) etiology. The differential impact on MPM risk of polymorphic alleles of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD/SOD2) genes involved in the defence against oxidative damage has been investigated. Ninety cases of MPM and 395 controls were genotyped using the arrayed-primer extension technique. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the predictive role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) potentially involved in MPM carcinogenesis after adjustment for potential confounders. An increased risk of MPM was found in subjects bearing a GSTM1 null allele (OR = 1.69, 95% Cl = 1.04-2.74; p = 0.034), and in those with the Ala/Ala genotypes at codon 16 within MnSOD (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = 1.55-6.05; p = 0.001). A stronger effect of MnSOD was observed among patients without a clear exposure to asbestos fibres. No effect was found for GSTA2, GSTA4, GSTM3, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genes. These findings, if replicated, contribute substantial evidence to the hypothesis that oxidative stress and cellular antireactive oxygen species systems are involved in the pathogenesis and in the natural history of MPM. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17290392
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  • 3
    Abstract: BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Familial aggregation of lung cancer exists after accounting for cigarette smoking. However, the extent to which family history affects risk by smoking status, histology, relative type and ethnicity is not well described. This pooled analysis included 24 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Each study collected age of onset/interview, gender, race/ethnicity, cigarette smoking, histology and first-degree family history of lung cancer. Data from 24,380 lung cancer cases and 23,305 healthy controls were analysed. Unconditional logistic regression models and generalised estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Individuals with a first-degree relative with lung cancer had a 1.51-fold increase in the risk of lung cancer, after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders (95% CI: 1.39, 1.63). The association was strongest for those with a family history in a sibling, after adjustment (odds ratios (OR)=1.82, 95% CI: 1.62, 2.05). No modifying effect by histologic type was found. Never smokers showed a lower association with positive familial history of lung cancer (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.52), slightly stronger for those with an affected sibling (OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.93), after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of lung cancer among never smokers and similar magnitudes of the effect of family history on lung cancer risk across histological types suggests familial aggregation of lung cancer is independent of those risks associated with cigarette smoking. While the role of genetic variation in the aetiology of lung cancer remains to be fully characterised, family history assessment is immediately available and those with a positive history represent a higher risk group.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22436981
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; LUNG ; GENE ; GENES ; microarray ; METABOLISM ; mechanisms ; ASSOCIATION ; DNA-REPAIR ; genetics ; GENOTYPES ; NETHERLANDS ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; MICROARRAY ANALYSIS ; mesothelioma ; DNA repair ; glutathione-S-transferase ; molecular epidemiology ; malignant pleural mesothelioma ; case control ; ARRAYED PRIMER EXTENSION ; Genetic ; CROCIDOLITE ASBESTOS
    Abstract: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive cancer mostly attributable to asbestos exposure. Many polymorphic genes encoding for xenobiotic and oxidative metabolism enzymes (XME) or involved in genome stability (GS) can modulate individual MPM risk in exposed populations. An association study was carried out in a case-control setting including 119 MPM patients and two groups of referent subjects (104 with and 695 without documented asbestos exposure). Forty-eight polymorphisms in XME genes and 75 in GS-genes were evaluated. Statistical analysis revealed some significant associations of studied polymorphisms with MPM risk, but most of them disappeared after applying Bonferroni correction (new threshold for statistical significance: p = 4.07 X 10(-4)). On the other hand, the nucleotidic change 282C 〉 T within NAT2 held the statistical significance (OR = 3.54; 95% CI 1.75-7.16; p = 0.0002), reinforcing existing evidences that describe genetic polymorphisms of NAT2 possibly involved in the etiology of the MPM. V.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19751749
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: cisapride ; gallbladder motility ; acetylcholine release ; gallbladder volume ; healthy subjects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of cisapride, a new non-antidopaminergic agent, on human gallbladder volume has been studied in nine normal subjects. In a double-blind crossover fashion, each subject was given a slow i.v. injection of cisapride and placebo after 12-h fasting. Gallbladder volume was monitored every 15 min for 90 min by real-time ultrasonography. After cisapride, gallbladder volume significantly diminished, with a mean reduction of 22.9±5%, observed 30 min after injection, whereas no significant changes were noted after placebo. A cholinergic mechanism is proposed to explain the effect of cisapride on gallbladder volume.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: atropine ; bethanechol ; prostigmine ; gallbladder volume ; real-time ultrasonography ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of direct cholinergic stimulation and blockade on gallbladder volume, determined by real-time ultrasonography (RUS), was evaluated in twenty normal, fasting subjects. Eleven subjects received atropine sulphate or placebo and 9 subjects a series of 3 injection of prostigmine, bethanechol or placebo, randomly assigned, at intervals of 24 h. RUS was performed under basal conditions after fasting for 12 h and every 5 min after drug injection up to 45 min in the atropine study and up to 60 min after prostigmine and bethanechol. There was no significant variation from fasting gallbladder volume after placebo in either group. After atropine sulphate gallbladder volume at first decreased and then significantly increased. With bethanechol and prostigmine, the volume fell significantly to a trough after 30 to 35 min, and then it returned to the basal value within 60 min. It is suggested that cholinergic mediation is involved in maintaining fasting tone in the gallbladder and that cholinergic stimulation causes contraction of the gallbladder by a direct effect.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Anterior cruciate ligament ; Leeds-Keio ligament
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract We report our experience using the Leeds-Keio artificial ligament for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The study relates the results of the first 40 patients subjected to arthroscopic reconstruction of the ACL with a Leeds-Keio ligament, with a mean follow-up of 73 months. No associated peripheral procedures were carried out on any patient. The average age of the patients at the time of the operation was 31 years (range 26–35 years). The rehabilitation protocol followed by all patients aimed at resumption of sport 4 months after the operation. Clinical assessment included IKDC and the Lysholm scoring scale. The KT-2000 system was used for instrumented evaluation of joint laxity. All patients underwent a radiographic check-up. Clinically there were 55% excellent or good results when using the IKDC scale, while with the Lysholm score, satisfactory results were obtained in 80%. Complete post-traumatic rupture of the ligament was observed in three patients. No patient suffered an episode of either hydrarthrosis or reactive synovitis, which indicates good tolerance to the ligament. The radiographic evaluation of the operated knees showed a close correlation between the appearance of degenerative phenomena and performance of arthroscopic meniscectomy. The results achieved with the Leeds-Keio artificial ligament 5 years after application, although not completely satisfactory and inferior to those obtained with autologous biological ligaments, should be considered an encouragement to promote new efforts in this interesting research field.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    International orthopaedics 8 (1985), S. 239-242 
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Keywords: Knee ; Tendons ; Patellar tendon ; Sports injuries
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Nous avons revu les observations et les résultats du traitement, conservateur ou chirurgical, de 125 — sur 172 — «genoux de sauteurs», suivis au moins 2 ans après l'apparition des troubles. Tous ces cas concernaient des athlètes exerçant des activités sportives diverses. Au moment de la révision, 15 d'entre eux avaient abandonné le sport et leurs lésions avaient guéri spontanément. Nous avons utilisé la classification de Blazina et coll. modifiée par Roels et coll. 24 malades appartenaient au stade 1, 42 au stade 2, 43 au stad 3 et 1 au stade 4. Chez tous les malades on a eu recours en premier lieu au traitement conservateur, sauf dans les ruptures tendineuses. Les résultats ont été très bons dans 42 cas, bons dans 32 et mauvais dans 43 mais 36 malades ont dû observer une longue période de repos et réduire leurs activités sportives avant de bénéficier d'une amélioration notable de leur état. Une intervention chirurgicale a été réalisée chez 16 malades (19 genoux), 18 étaient de stade 3 et 1 du stade 4. Diverses techniques chirurgicales ont été utilisées. Les résultats ont été très bons sur 7 genoux, bons sur 5 et mauvais sur 7. L'opération est indiquée en cas d'échec du traitement conservateur et chez les sujets qui ne veulent pas réduire le niveau de leurs activités sportives. Le but du traitement est d'obtenir la guérison au niveau de l'insertion osseuse des tendons. Nous insistons sur l'importance de la prévention du «genou de sauteur» chez les athlètes.
    Notes: Summary We have reviewed the clinical records and the results of conservative and surgical treatment of 125 out of 172 cases of Jumper's Knee followed for at least 2 years since the onset of symptoms. All were athletes involved in various sporting activities. At follow up 15 patients had given up sport and the lesion had healed spontaneously. We used the classification of Blazina et al [1] as modified by Roels et al. [12]. Twenty-four patients were in stage 1, 42 in stage 2, 43 in stage 3 and one in stage 4. Conservative treatment was used primarily on all patients with one exception where the tendon had ruptured. The results were very good in 42, good in 32, and poor in 43, but in 36 patients a long period of rest and reduction in sporting activity was necessary before a significant improvement was obtained. Operation was carried out on 16 patients (19 knees), 18 were in stage 3 and one in stage 4. Various surgical techniques were used. The results were very good in 7 knees, good in 5 and poor in 7. Operation is indicated after the failure of conservative measures and in patients who do not want to reduce their sporting level. The aim should be to induce healing at the bone tendon junction. We emphasize the importance of the prevention of jumper's knee in athletes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Key words Total knee arthroplasty ; Osteoarthritis ; Patella ; Overweight
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract Overweight patients are often considered poor candidates for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A retrospective study of this was done on 47 osteoarthritic knees treated by TKA without patella resurfacing between March 1991 and June 1993. The Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) rating system was used for clinical evaluation, and radiographs to study the degree of osteoarthritis and radiolucency. Correlations between overweight, range of motion (ROM) and stage of patellar damage and other measured variables (HSS score, patellar pain and radiolucency) were studied. Overweight was not correlated with HSS score, radiolucency or patellar pain. ROM was significantly correlated with patellar pain and HSS score, with better results in patients with ROM between 90° and 110°. Therefore, we believe that TKA in osteoarthritic knees can lead to successful results, even in active or overweight patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0392-6737
    Keywords: Infra-red and Raman spectra and scattering
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Riassunto Mescolamento non lineare di radiazioni IR e visibile, cioè diffusione Raman coerente da polaritoni generati da un laser a CO2, è stato utilizzato per ottenere la curva di dispersione e la sua larghezza nello spazio dei momentiq del polaritone associato al fonone a 1065 cm−1, di simmetriaE, in un cristallo di quarzo. Si mostra nell'articolo che è possibile ottenere, in questo modo, un metodo diretto per determinare, con grande precisione, l'indice di rifrazione e l'assorbanza di un cristallo. I risultati sono confrontati con dati sperimentali assai accurati ottenuti mediante diffusione Raman dei polaritoni in equilibrio termico; si trova un ottimo accordo tra i risultati delle due misure. Si mostra infine che tali tecniche di mescolamento non lineare sono del tutto compatibili con un semplice modello di diffusione di luce da polaritoni pompati.
    Abstract: Резюме Исполйзуется нелинейное смешивание инфракрасного и видимого излучений, т.е. когерентное романовскоие рассеяние на поляритонах, образованных CO2 лазером, для получения дисперсионной кривой и ее ширины вq-пространстве поляритонов, связанных сE-фононом при 1065 см−1, в кристаллическом кварце. В статйе показывается, что в таком полходе может быть получен прямой метод для независимого определения показателя преломления и поглощения кристалла с высокой точностью. Полученные результаты сравниваются с данными для рамановского рассеяния на поляритонах в тепловом равновесии. Получается очень хорошее согласие между двумя измерениями. Показывается, что техника нелинейного смешивания согласуется с простой картиной рассеяния света на горячих поляритонах.
    Notes: Summary Nonlinear mixing of IR and visible radiation,i.e. coherent Raman scattering by polaritons driven by a CO2 laser, has been used to obtain the dispersion curve and its width inq-space of the polariton associated to theE-phonon at 1065 cm−1 in crystal quartz. It is shown in this paper that a direct method to determine indipendently, with high precision, the refractive index and absorbance of a crystal can be obtained in this way. The results are compared with accurate data obtained from Raman scattering by polaritions in thermal equilibrium and very good agreement is found between the two measurements. It is finally shown that nonlinear-mixing techniques turn out to be completely consistent with the simple picture of scattering of light by hot polaritons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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