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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; THERAPY ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; incidence ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; BREAST ; BREAST-CANCER ; DESIGN ; AGE ; WOMEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; smoking ; cancer risk ; UNITED-STATES ; ALCOHOL ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; CONSUMPTION ; BIRTH COHORT ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; MASS INDEX ; ORAL-CONTRACEPTIVE USE ; REQUIRING PROLONGED OBSERVATION ; METAANALYSIS ; HORMONAL FACTORS ; ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES ; EPITHELIAL OVARIAN
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Only about half the studies that have collected information on the relevance of women's height and body mass index to their risk of developing ovarian cancer have published their results, and findings are inconsistent. Here, we bring together the worldwide evidence, published and unpublished, and describe these relationships. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Individual data on 25,157 women with ovarian cancer and 81,311 women without ovarian cancer from 47 epidemiological studies were collected, checked, and analysed centrally. Adjusted relative risks of ovarian cancer were calculated, by height and by body mass index. Ovarian cancer risk increased significantly with height and with body mass index, except in studies using hospital controls. For other study designs, the relative risk of ovarian cancer per 5 cm increase in height was 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.09; p〈0.001); this relationship did not vary significantly by women's age, year of birth, education, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, smoking, alcohol consumption, having had a hysterectomy, having first degree relatives with ovarian or breast cancer, use of oral contraceptives, or use of menopausal hormone therapy. For body mass index, there was significant heterogeneity (p〈0.001) in the findings between ever-users and never-users of menopausal hormone therapy, but not by the 11 other factors listed above. The relative risk for ovarian cancer per 5 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index was 1.10 (95% CI, 1.07-1.13; p〈0.001) in never-users and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.92-0.99; p = 0.02) in ever-users of hormone therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian cancer is associated with height and, among never-users of hormone therapy, with body mass index. In high-income countries, both height and body mass index have been increasing in birth cohorts now developing the disease. If all other relevant factors had remained constant, then these increases in height and weight would be associated with a 3% increase in ovarian cancer incidence per decade. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22606070
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  • 2
    Keywords: CLASSIFICATION ; TUMORS ; WOMEN ; HEIGHT ; METAANALYSIS ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; PREMENOPAUSAL ; SEX-HORMONES ; SELF-REPORTED WEIGHT ; HORMONE-THERAPY
    Abstract: Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We evaluated the association between BMI (recent, maximum and in young adulthood) and ovarian cancer risk using original data from 15 case-control studies (13 548 cases and 17 913 controls). We combined study-specific adjusted odds ratios (ORs) using a random-effects model. We further examined the associations by histological subtype, menopausal status and post-menopausal hormone use. High BMI (all time-points) was associated with increased risk. This was most pronounced for borderline serous (recent BMI: pooled OR=1.24 per 5 kg/m(2); 95% CI 1.18-1.30), invasive endometrioid (1.17; 1.11-1.23) and invasive mucinous (1.19; 1.06-1.32) tumours. There was no association with serous invasive cancer overall (0.98; 0.94-1.02), but increased risks for low-grade serous invasive tumours (1.13, 1.03-1.25) and in pre-menopausal women (1.11; 1.04-1.18). Among post-menopausal women, the associations did not differ between hormone replacement therapy users and non-users. Whilst obesity appears to increase risk of the less common histological subtypes of ovarian cancer, it does not increase risk of high-grade invasive serous cancers, and reducing BMI is therefore unlikely to prevent the majority of ovarian cancer deaths. Other modifiable factors must be identified to control this disease.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23404857
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A model which incorporates the influence of electrode surface conditions, gas pressure, and charging rate on the voltage stability of high energy spark gaps is discussed. Experimental results support several predictions of the model; namely, that increasing the pressure and the rate of voltage charging both produce a broadening of the self-breakdown voltage distribution, whereas a narrow voltage distribution can be produced by supplying a copious source of electrons at the cathode surface. Experimental results also indicate that two different mechanisms can produce this broadening, both of which can be taken into account with the use of the model presented. Further implications of the model include changes in the width of the self-breakdown voltage probability density function as the primary emission characteristics of the cathode are modified by, for example, oxide or nitride coatings and/or deposits from the insulator. Overall, the model provides a useful and physically sound framework from which the properties of spark gaps under a wide variety of experimental conditions may be evaluated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-09
    Description: Objective To identify modifiable factors associated with sessile serrated polyps (SSPs) and compare the association of these factors with conventional adenomas (ADs) and hyperplastic polyps (HPs). Design We used data from the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study, a colonoscopy-based case–control study. Included were 214 SSP cases, 1779 AD cases, 560 HP cases and 3851 polyp-free controls. Results Cigarette smoking was associated with increased risk for all polyps and was stronger for SSPs than for ADs (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.62, for current vs never, p trend =0.008). Current regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was associated with a 40% reduction in SSP risk in comparison with never users (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.96, p trend =0.03), similar to the association with AD. Red meat intake was strongly associated with SSP risk (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.41 to 4.74 for highest vs lowest intake, p trend 〈0.001) and the association with SSP was stronger than with AD (p trend =0.003). Obesity, folate intake, fibre intake and fat intake were not associated with SSP risk after adjustment for other factors. Exercise, alcohol use and calcium intake were not associated with risk for SSPs. Conclusions SSPs share some modifiable risk factors for ADs, some of which are more strongly associated with SSPs than ADs. Thus, preventive efforts to reduce risk for ADs may also be applicable to SSPs. Additionally, SSPs have some distinctive risk factors. Future studies should evaluate the preventive strategies for these factors. The findings from this study also contribute to an understanding of the aetiology and biology of SSPs.
    Print ISSN: 0017-5749
    Electronic ISSN: 1468-3288
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing Group
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-02-10
    Description: Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and one of its distinguishing characteristics, oligomenorrhea, have both been associated with ovarian cancer risk in some but not all studies. However, these associations have been rarely examined by ovarian cancer histotypes, which may explain the lack of clear associations reported in previous studies. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 case–control studies including 16,594 women with invasive ovarian cancer ( n = 13,719) or borderline ovarian disease ( n = 2,875) and 17,718 controls. Adjusted study-specific ORs were calculated using logistic regression and combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled histotype-specific ORs were calculated using polytomous logistic regression. Results: Women reporting menstrual cycle length 〉35 days had decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer compared with women reporting cycle length ≤35 days [OR = 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58–0.84]. Decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer was also observed among women who reported irregular menstrual cycles compared with women with regular cycles (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.76–0.89). No significant association was observed between self-reported PCOS and invasive ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.65–1.15). There was a decreased risk of all individual invasive histotypes for women with menstrual cycle length 〉35 days, but no association with serous borderline tumors ( P heterogeneity = 0.006). Similarly, we observed decreased risks of most invasive histotypes among women with irregular cycles, but an increased risk of borderline serous and mucinous tumors ( P heterogeneity 〈 0.0001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that menstrual cycle characteristics influence ovarian cancer risk differentially based on histotype. Impact: These results highlight the importance of examining ovarian cancer risk factors associations by histologic subtype. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(2); 174–82. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1055-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7755
    Topics: Medicine
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