Key words Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy
Primary hyper- parathyroidism
Perioperative parathyroid hormone monitoring
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract The currently established procedure for surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism is bilateral exploration and visualization of all four glands to identify an adenoma and exclude multiglandular disease. With the development of improved preoperative localization imaging of the parathyroids using high-resolution ultrasonography and sestamibi scintigraphy, on the one hand, and perioperative control of surgical success with a rapid parathyroid hormone assay on the other, unilateral and minimally invasive techniques have become feasible. For patients with unequivocal localization in preoperative sestamibi scintigraphy and high-resolution ultrasonography of the parathyroid adenoma in probable single-gland disease, the unilateral and minimally invasive parathyroidectomy present a therapeutic option. Perioperative rapid parathyroid hormone assays, although costly, offer immediate supervision of adenoma extirpation and differentiation of single- and multiglandular disease. These methods demonstrate advantages with favorable cosmetic results and lower reported rate of postoperative hypoparathyroidism. These methods are already being practiced in some places under local anesthesia and in an ambulatory setting. This contribution provides an introduction and overview of the currently practiced unilateral and minimally invasive techniques of parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism, discussing indications, advantages and disadvantages, and technical differences in the practiced methods.
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