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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: netilmicin ; aminoglycoside antibiotics ; nephrotoxicity ; pharmacokinetics ; multiple dose ; i.m. route ; individual variability ; absorption
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Intra- and interindividual variability in the serum kinetics and renal elimination of netilmicin was investigated in a controlled study in 6 healthy, male volunteers. The antibiotic was administered on 2 single days, separated by a 3 week interval. Netilmicin 2 mg/kg lean body mass was given i.m. twice (b.i.d.) and three times (t.i.d.) in a crossover design. 54 blood and 28 urine samples per volunteer were analysed by a radio-enzymatic assay. 24 h serum kinetics were best described by a two compartment open model with time-dependent serum clearance. The latter decreased intraindividually on both study days, from a mean of 82 to 68 ml/min (p〈0.05). A similar decrease was observed in the 12 h creatinine clearance. Because drug administration started in the morning, this finding reflects the physiological circadian rhythm in the glomerular filtration rate. The corresponding half-lives of netilmicin rose from 149 to 171 min. Striking intraindividual variation in absorption half-life was observed in all volunteers, ranging from less than 4 to more than 30 min. Comparison of the pharmacokinetic parameters derived from data of the first and second study, revealed a significant intraindividual reduction in the volume of distribution (mean decrease 13%) and in the serum clearance of netilmicin (−8%). Analysis of the serum data of the b.i.d. and t.i.d. dosing schedules showed no difference in the pharmacokinetic parameters; there was significantly higher urinary recovery with the t.i.d. (+9%) than with the b.i.d. schedules. After both days, the 24 h creatinine clearance decreased significantly, by more than 10%. A slight nephrotoxic effect, induced by a therapy for one day with netilmicin, can be deduced from these data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Picea abies ; Ectomycorrhizae ; Physiological ecology ; Forest decline
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The mycorrhizal activity of spruce in a mixed-wood forest was monitored over 1 year by measuring biochemical characters in fine roots of six canopy trees and of a regrowth stand. The concentration of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), a measure of living biomass, showed two peaks per year, one at bud break and one after main shoot growth. The concentration of storage polysaccharides in mycorrhizae showed the same cycles even more pronouncedly. It is proposed that these changes reflect growth and senescence of mycorrhizae and that the timing of the cycles is controlled by translocation of assimilates from the shoot. Differences between mycorrhizae collected from canopy trees and the regrowth stand were small and not significant. Characters known to be related to fungal activity of the mycorrhizal symbiosis (concentration of trehalose, glucose uptake, respiration) also varied little among the six canopy trees. Large differences among fine-root samples from different canopy trees, however, were detected in the concentrations of ATP and storage polysaccharides, measures which seemed to be physiologically integrated within trees. If low concentrations in roots precede losses of foliage from trees, these two symptoms could be used as early indicators of growth decline in individual spruce trees.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The morphologic changes in the liver (infiltrates in the periportal regions, hyperactivity of the von Kupffer cells, liver cell necroses) observed after prolonged sensitization of rabbits with extracts of homologous whole liver are due primarily to the antigenic effect of the cytoplasmic fractions. With the sensitization with homologous microsomal-mitochondrial fractions, the changes are essentially less extensive. With the injections of homologous fractions of nuclei of hepatic parenchymal cells no major changes can be demonstrated.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die bei langzeitiger Sensibilisierung von Kaninchen mit homologem Lebergesamtextrakt beobachteten morphologischen Leberveränderungen (Infiltration der periportalen Felder, Aktivierung der Kupfferschen Sternzellen, Leberzellnekrosen) sind im wesentlichen auf die antigene Wirksamkeit der Cytoplasmafraktion zurückzuführen. Bei Sensibilisierung mit homologer Mikrosomen-Mitochondrienfraktion sind die Veränderungen wesentlich geringer ausgeprägt. Bei Behandlung mit homologer Leberparenchymzellkernfraktion konnten keine wesentlichen morphologischen Veränderungen nachgewiesen werden.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Picea abies ; Ectomycorrhizae ; Physiological ecology ; Forest decline
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The mycorrhizal activity of spruce in a mixed-wood forest was monitored over 1 year by measuring biochemical characters in fine roots of six canopy trees and of a regrowth stand. The concentration of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), a measure of living biomass, showed two peaks per year, one at bud break and one after main shoot growth. The concentration of storage polysaccharides in mycorrhizae showed the same cycles even more pronouncedly. It is proposed that these changes reflect growth and senescence of mycorrhizae and that the timing of the cycles is controlled by translocation of assimilates from the shoot. Differences between mycorrhizae collected from canopy trees and the regrowth stand were small and not significant. Characters known to be related to fungal activity of the mycorrhizal symbiosis (concentration of trehalose, glucose uptake, respiration) also varied little among the six canopy trees. Large differences among fine-root samples from different canopy trees, however, were detected in the concentrations of ATP and storage polysaccharides, measures which seemed to be physiologically integrated within trees. If low concentrations in roots precede losses of foliage from trees, these two symptoms could be used as early indicators of growth decline in individual spruce trees.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Key words CTCL ; Sézary syndrome ; CD7 ; Cytokines ; Clonality
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The expansion of CD4+CD7– T cells in the peripheral blood of Sézary syndrome (SS) is well known. It remains unclear whether this population contains the dominant T cell clone. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of five SS patients were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting into CD4+CD7– and CD4+CD7+ populations. These populations were analysed separately for clonality of the T cell receptor γ chain (TCR-γ) by PCR-DGGE. The cytokine profile of both populations was investigated by RT-PCR ELISA for IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IL-15. In three other patients with known Vβ-usage, the dominant T cell clones were phenotypically characterized by double staining. PCR-DGGE of TCR-γ demonstrated that all patients had a clonal population in their blood and that this population was present in CD4+CD7– and CD4+CD7+ populations. Concerning mRNA cytokine transcription, the two populations did not show any consistent differences. In three patients with identified clones (Vβ 3.1, 5.3 and 6.7), double staining revealed positivity for CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD45RO and CD7 in a significant proportion (at least 35%). We conclude that the CD4+CD7– population does not represent the dominant T cell clone in patients with SS. An increase in this population of PBMC in SS might account for deviations in the T cell functions of the patients.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Contact dermatitis 45 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Preservation of products with the combination of 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolinone (methylchloroisothiazolinone, MCI) and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolinone (methylisothiazolinone, MI), commercialized as Kathon CG or WT, is widely used. Allergic contact dermatitis reactions to the preservative have been described in many publications of epidemiological studies. In addition, a number of allergic, airborne reactions to MCI/MI were observed in recent years. The aim of the presented study was: (i) to compare epidemiological data of MCI/MI with data of other preservatives; (ii) to estimate the possible exposure to MCI/MI from commercial products and the distribution of MCI/MI in chemical products based on a product evaluation of the chemical product register of the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health; (iii) to estimate the exposure to MCI/MI, volatile organic chemicals (VOC) and glycols from freshly painted walls; (iv) to compare the contact allergenic potential of MCI/MI with other preservatives. It was found that the number of registered chemical products, unambiguously identifiable as containing MCI increased from 3644 products in July 1999 to 4843 products in April 2001 in Switzerland. It is estimated that today, the total number of chemical products preserved with MCI/MI on the Swiss market is about 6000. A further increase is to be expected. The contact allergenic potential of MCI/MI seems to be higher than for other preservatives. Measurements of MCI/MI concentrations in air samples of freshly painted rooms have shown that the concentration of MCI/MI in the air a few days after painting may be high enough to elicit airborne reactions in already-sensitized patients. In a single case, reactions to MCI/MI were observed over months after wall painting. In this case, both wall paint and plaster contained MCI (40 and 46 ppm). Volatile organic chemicals (VOC) may also be relevant for the elicitation of airborne reactions. In 1/3 of the measurements, the VOC concentrations measured within 14 days after painting were in a range within which sensory irritation and discomfort may be induced. Declaration of MCI/MI-containing products, replacement of MCI/MI by alternative preservatives or the separate use of preservatives in industrial products and in cosmetics might reduce the risk of airborne reactions.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9039
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary It is sometimes convenient to replace a system (e.g., a rotating shaft) whose stability is to be investigated by a simplified model. There are cases, however, where the stability pattern obtained decisively depends on the choice of the model. The present paper establishes a few rules for the selection of reliable models, called ‘admissible’. The investigations are confined to linear mechanic systems and linear passive electrical networks. Moreover, the author shows that certain systems with an infinite degree of freedom do not have finite admissible models. An important problem is the question as to which small influences (as, e.g. friction) may or must not be neglected in the given situation. This problem is solved by means of a perturbation approach.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Häufig wird ein System, dessen Stabilität untersucht werden soll (z. B. eine rotierende Welle), durch ein einfacheres Modell ersetzt. Es gibt jedoch Fälle, wo die Stabilitätskarte entscheidend von der Wahl des Modells abhängt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden einige Regeln aufgestellt, die man bei der Auswahl eines Modells befolgen muss, damit man dieses als «annehmbar» bezeichnen kann. Die Untersuchungen werden durchgeführt an linearen mechanischen Systemen und linearen passiven elektrischen Netzwerken. Es wird weiterhin gezeigt, dass es Systeme mit unendlichem Freiheitsgrad gibt, die kein annehmbares endliches Modell haben. Die Frage, ob man kleine Einflüsse (Reibungen usw.) in einem Modell vernachlässigen darf oder nicht, wird mit Hilfe einer Störungsrechnung behandelt.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9039
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 25 (1969), S. 804-805 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es wurde beobachtet, dassα-Ferritin unter der Einwirkung von Natriumhydrosulfit sein Eisen langsamer abgibt alsβ-Ferritin. Diese Beobachtung lässt vermuten, dass das dreiwertige Eisen zunächst eine Bindung mit dem Eiweiss eingeht und erst dann durch einen primären Elektronenakzeptor reduziert wird. Ein Unterschied im primären Elektronenakzeptor zwischenα- undβ-Ferritin könnte die verschieden rasche Eisenabgabe erklären.
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