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  • 1
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    Wymondham : Horizen Scientific
    Call number: 08-Chem
    Pages: x, 266 p. : ill.
    ISBN: 1898486166
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  • 2
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Biochemistry ; Nucleic Acids ; Life sciences ; Biochemistry, general ; Nucleic Acid Chemistry ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: MiniPEG-gPNA -- Cyclopentane Peptide Nucleic Acids -- Chiral PNAs with Constrained Open-chain Backbones -- Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Radiometal-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acids -- Preparation of Metal-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acid Bioconjugates on the Solid Phase -- Formation and Characterization of PNA-Containing Heteroquadruplexes -- Sequence Selective Recognition of Double Stranded RNA using Triple Helix-forming Peptide Nucleic Acids -- Assembly of PNA-tagged Small Molecules, Peptides and Carbohydrates onto DNA Templates: Programming the℗ Combinatorial Pairing and Inter-ligand Distance -- Site-selective Scission of Human Genome using PNA-based Artificial Restriction DNA Cutter -- PNA Openers and their Applications for Bacterial DNA Diagnostics -- DNA-templated Native Chemical Ligation of Functionalized Peptide Nucleic Acids ́€“ A Versatile Tool for Single Base Specific Detection of Nucleic Acids -- Use of Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) for Genotyping by Solution and Surface Methods -- Analysis of PNA Hybridization by Surface Plasmon Resonance -- PNA Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) For Rapid Microbiology and Cytogenetic Analysis -- Rapid miRNA Imaging in Cells using Fluorogenic Templated Staudinger Reaction Between PNA-based Probes -- Cellular Delivery of Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) -- Peptide Nucleic Acid Mediated Recombination For Targeted Genomic Repair and Modification -- Antisense Effects of PNAs in Bacteria
    Abstract: Exemplifying and illustrating recent exciting advances in PNA chemistry, the second edition of Peptide Nucleic Acids: Methods and Protocols serves as a vital complement to the first edition of the book. Since the discovery of peptide nucleic acids, many interesting new derivatives and analogues in terms of nucleic acid recognition specificity and affinity have emerged. Also, as this detailed volume presents, great ingenuity in exploiting the unique properties of PNAs for a wide variety of applications within drug discovery, medical diagnostics, chemical biology and nanotechnology has unfolded. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. ℗ Peptide Nucleic Acids: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition℗ serves as a source of useful specific methods and protocols as well as a source of inspiration for future developments
    Pages: X, 239 p. 60 illus., 21 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781627035538
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Bismuth therapy ; Helicobacter pylori ; Biological half-life ; Tissue distribution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The bioavailability of205Bi from various205Bilabelled pharmaceutical oral bismuth preparations was studied in rats. The intestinal absorption, calculated from205Bi whole body retention and accumulated205Bi urinary excretion, was small in general, but significantly higher (0.26–0.33% of dose) from oral bismuth citrates (basic bismuth citrate, colloidal bismuth subcitrate) as compared to basic bismuth nitrate, salicylate, gallate, and bismuth aluminate (0.04–0.11% of dose). After oral administration, the retained bismuth was mainly accumulated in the kidney, followed by bone, red blood cells and the lung. The whole body retention, faecal and urinary excretions of205Bi were described by a three-compartment model. Biological205Bi half-lives of 10, 36 and 295 h were derived in rats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mutation affects both coding joint formation during immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor V(D)J recombination and double-strand break repair. We analyzed scid cells for their ability to undergo other types of DNA end joining: non-homologous and homologous recombination. Using plasmid constructs carrying antibiotic resistance genes, we observed that the efficiency of nonhomologous integration in scid cells was equal to that in wildtype cell lines. In addition, there was no obvious difference in the fidelity of the integration and in the expression of the resistance genes. Moreover, scid cells were able to carry out homologous recombination of extrachromosomal substrates just as well as wildtype cells. These results suggest a mechanistic difference between nonhomologous integration and homologous recombination on the one hand and V(D)J recombination and double-strand break repair on the other.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Radiocaesium ; Hexacyanoferrates(II) ; Cyanide bioavailability ; Iron absorption
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract After oral administration of 500 mg KFe[Fe(CN)6] labelled with59Fe either in the ferric or ferrous position and with14C in the cyanide group only 0.22% of the FeII and 〈0.04% of the FeIII were absorbed in three male volunteers. Only 2 mg non-complex bound relabelled cyanide (0.03 mg CN-/kg body wt) were absorbed from 500 mg [14C]KFeHCF, which is about a factor of 20–100 below the lethal dose in humans (0.5–3.5 mg CN-/kg body wt). Therefore, iron(III) hexacyanoferrates(II) can be considered as safe antidotes, i.e. for inhibiting the intestinal absorption of radiocaesium or for accelerating the excretion of already absorbed134/137Cs in the case of a severe nuclear accident.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Anaerobe ; Thermophilic ; Xylan ; Hemicellulose ; Chemoorganotrophic ; Hot spring ; Thermoanaerobium acetigenum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract An anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, xylanolytic nonspore-forming bacterium, strain X6B, was isolated from a 70°C Icelandic hot spring sediment. The bacterium was rod-shaped, 3.6–5.9 μm long and 0.7 to 1.0 μm wide, and cells grew singly, in pairs, and occasionally formed chains. The bacterium was nonmotile with no flagella. Cells from mid-to late exponential gowth-phase cultures stained gram-negative but had a gram-positive like cell wall structure in transmission electron photomicrographs. The bacterium grew between 50°C and 78°C with an optimum temperature at about 65°C to 68°C. Growth occurred between pH 5.2 and 8.5 with an optimum pH close to 7. During growth on beech wood xylan, glucose and d-xylose, the isolate produced CO2, acetate and H2 as major fermentation products, and a small amounts of ethanol; lactate was not produced. X6B did not reduce acetone to isopropanol or sulphate or thiosulfate to sulfide. The base composition of X6B's cellular DNA was 35.7 mol% guanine + cytosine. The properties of this strain do not fit any previously described species. The name proposed for the isolated bacterium was Thermoanaerobium acetigenum, spec. nov.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key words Anaerobe ; Thermophile ; Xylose ; Hemicellulose ; Ethanol ; Hot spring ; Iceland ; Thermoanaerobacter mathranii
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The extremely thermophilic ethanol-producing strain A3 was isolated from a hot spring in Iceland. The cells were rod-shaped, motile, and had terminal spores; cells from the mid-to-late exponential growth phase stained gram-variable but had a gram-positive cell wall structure when viewed by transmission electron microscopy. Strain A3 used a number of carbohydrates as carbon sources, including xylan, but did not utilize microcrystalline cellulose. Fermentation end products were ethanol, acetate, lactate, CO2, and H2. The temperature optimum for growth was between 70 and 75° C, and growth occurred in the range of 50–75° C. The pH range for growth was 4.7–8.8, with an optimum at pH 7.0. Strain A3 was sensitive to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, penicillin G, neomycin, and vancomycin at 100 mg/l but was not sensitive to chloramphenicol and neomycin at 10 mg/l, which indicates that strain A3 belongs to the eubacteria. Addition of 50.66 kPa H2 or 2% NaCl did not affect growth. The isolate grew in the presence of exogenously added 4% (w/v) ethanol. The G+C ratio was 37 mol%. 16S rDNA studies revealed that strain A3 belongs to the genus Thermoanaerobacter. Genotypic and phenotypic differences between strain A3 and other related species indicate that strain A3 can be assigned to a new species, and the name Thermoanaerobacter mathranii is proposed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 6 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification height is examined by means of full-scale measurements. A breathing thermal manikin is used to simulate a person. It is found that the flow in the boundary layer around a person is able to a great extent to entrain and transport air from below the breathing zone. In the case of non-passive, heated contaminant sources, this entrainment improves the indoor air quality. Measurements of exposure due to a passive contaminant source show a significant dependence on the flow field as well as on the contaminant source location. Poor system performance is found in the case of a passive contaminant released in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation are defined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: Background. In the Danish Town Hall Study" it has previously been shown that the sick building syndrome is a widespread phenomenon. This has given rise to speculations as to whether biologically active components in dust or whether absorbed organic gases and vapours in the indoor climate may be partly responsible for the sick building syndrome. Therefore, we wished to study whether qualitative conditions in dust, of a physical, chemical, and biological nature, are related to the prevalence of symptoms of the sick building syndrome. Material and methods. The study included 12 town halls in the Copenhagen area. A total of 870 persons participated, 584 women and 286 men. All the participants filled out a questionnaire regarding health and working conditions, and dust samples were collected with a special vacuum cleaner in the working environment of the participants, after which the contents of inorganic and organic particles as well as of human source fragments the (hair, nails, skin) and various fibres were determined. Results. There was a significant correlation (P〈0.05) between the prevalence of gram-negative bacteria in the indoor climate dust, and general symptoms (fatigue, heavy-headedness, headache, dizziness, concentration problems) (corr.coeff.=0.73), as well as symptoms from the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract (corr.coeff.=0.76). Also, there was a significant relation between the prevalence of particles in the dust and the prevalence of symptoms from the mucous membranes (corr.coeff.=0.81). There was a strong and significant correlation between the total amount of volatile organic components (TVOC) and lack of concentration (corr.coeff. =0.85) and feeling heavy-headed (corr.coeff.=0.72). Macromolecular dust (potentially allergenetic material) was significantly correlated to the prevalence of headache and general malaise/dizziness (corr.coeff.=0.66), while the ability of the dust to liberate histamine was significantly related to the prevalence of general malaise, dizziness (corr.coeff.=0.65) and lack of concentration (corr.coeff. =0.58). Further analyses including a number of potential confounders did not change the results of the above analyses. Conclusion. The results of this study support the hypothesis that qualitative properties of dust are important to the sick building syndrome. The study was based on relatively few buildings, but nevertheless strong correlations were found. In perspective, epidemiological intervention studies should be carried out to investigate whether minimizing the amount of both dust and bacteria in the indoor climate affect the prevalence of sick building syndrome.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from five different waterborne paints was measured in small climatic chambers under standard conditions over a one-year period. The aims of the study were to evaluate the time emission profiles and to develop methods for comparison of different paints. The paints were applied to tin-plated steel sheets. VOCs were sampled on Tenax TA and analysed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography. The chamber concentrations increased rapidly during the first few hours and then decreased as the emission rates dropped. A model expression including an exponentially decreasing emission rate of the paint film, the air exchange rate, and a normalization of the film thickness was fitted to the concentration versus time data. The time required to reach a given emission rate was estimated and found suitable for comparison of the emission of VOCs from the paints. It was found that data sampled within three weeks or less may be sufficient to predict the emission of VOCs up to one year. Reduction of long-term emissions may be achieved most efficiently by (1) substituting a more -volatile VOC whose emission is controlled by evaporation for a less volatile VOC characterized by diffusion-controlled emission and (2) reducing the paint film thickness rather than reducing the initial VOC content of the paint.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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