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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key wordsCandida albicans ; N-acetylglucosaminidase ; HEX1 ; Glucose repression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The N-acetylglucosaminidase of Candida albicans is a secreted hydrolytic enzyme that contributes to the yeast’s virulence. There was a significant increase in the N-acetylglucosaminidase activity of C. albicans cells released from carbon starvation in medium containing N-acetylglucosamine. The increased enzyme activity in N-acetylglucosamine-grown cells correlated with increased transcription of the HEX1 gene, which encodes C. albicans N-acetylglucosaminidase. In contrast, glucose repressed HEX1 transcription, and glucose-grown cells had on average 94-fold lower N-acetylglucosaminidase activities than did N-acetylglucosamine-grown cells. N-acetylglucosaminidase induction in cells grown on N-acetylglucosamine was also repressed by fructose, mannose or galactose, although to a lesser extent than by glucose, and sucrose repressed enzyme production by only 10%. Eighty-eight percent of the enzyme in N-acetylglucosamine-grown cells was localised in the periplasm, and after incubation for 5 h, 30 or 70% of the total enzyme activity was secreted into the medium by yeast or mycelial cells, respectively. The cellular location of the enzyme and the regulation of production by the carbon source indicate a scavenging role for C. albicans N-acetylglucosaminidase.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Expression of the Candida albicans vacuolar aspartic proteinase (APR1) and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (HEX1) genes was studied when carbon-starved cells of strains ATCC 10261 and A72 were induced to grow as yeast or as germ tube-forming cells. Amounts of APR1 mRNA were similar under yeast or germ tube growth conditions. However, more APR1 mRNA was present in cells grown at 28°C than in cells grown at 37°C. The Apr1 enzyme activity of cell-free extracts was not affected by cellular morphology, culture pH or growth temperature. Amounts of HEX1 mRNA were also higher in N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-induced cells grown at 28°C than in cells grown at 37°C. There was slightly more HEX1 mRNA in cells grown at pH 4.5 than in cells grown at pH 6.7. The β-N-acetylglucosaminidase activities of GlcNAc-grown cells correlated with the amounts of HEX1 mRNA and were higher when cells were grown at a lower temperature and at a lower pH. Although a similar temperature- and pH-dependent pattern of HEX1 mRNA expression was seen in cells grown on glucose, the enzyme activities in cell-free extracts were all very low. These data indicate that the APR1 and HEX1 genes play no direct role in the dimorphic transition of C. albicans and that transcription of both genes appears to be temperature regulated when the cells are released from carbon starvation. The expression of HEX1 mRNA is in part under the control of culture pH and translation of HEX1 mRNA seems to be regulated by glucose.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsl1p is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that regulates cell morphology. We identified Candida albicans CaHSL1 and analysed its function in C. albicans. Cells lacking CaHsl1p exhibited filamentous growth under yeast growth conditions with the filaments elongating more quickly than did those of the wild type under hyphal growth conditions, suggesting that it plays a role in the suppression of cell elongation. Green fluorescent protein-tagged CaHsl1p colocalized with a septin complex to the bud neck during yeast growth or to a potent septation site during hyphal growth, as expected from the localization in S. cerevisiae. However, the localization of the septin complex did not change in ΔCahsl1, suggesting that CaHsl1p does not participate in septin organization. CaHsl1p was expressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner and, except for the G1 phase, phosphorylated throughout the cell cycle. In ΔCahsl1 cells, the phosphorylation of a possible CaHsl1p target CaSwe1p decreased, while that of CaCdc28p at tyrosine18 increased. Either an extra copy of the tyrosine18-mutated CaCdc28p or deletion of CaSWE1 suppressed the cell elongation phenotype caused by CaHSL1 deletion. Furthermore, ΔCahsl1 exhibited reduced virulence in the mouse systemic candidiasis model. Thus, the CaHsl1p-CaSwe1p-CaCdc28p pathway appears important in the cell elongation of both the yeast and hyphal forms and to the virulence of C. albicans.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: C. albicans ; C. stellatoidea ; DNA homology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Genetic relatedness between strains of C. albicans and C. stellatoidea was studied by measuring G + C content and overall sequence homology. G + C contents determined by high-performance liquid chromatography were 32.6 to 34.2% for 26 strains of C. albicans and 33.0 to 33.9% for eight strains of C. stellatoidea. DNA-DNA hybridization with two C. albicans and two C. stellatoidea probes revealed that all 34 test strains formed a single cluster in which the extents of hybridization with the heterologous probes ranged between 77.9 and 105.6% of those with the homologous probes. These results give support to the unification of C. albicans and C. stellatoidea into a single species.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: C. albicans ; adhesion ; fibrillar wall layer ; rapid-freezing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The rapid-freezing technique was applied in association with scanning and transmission electron microscopy to observe the initial attachment (or contact) ofCandida albicans cells to exfoliated human buccal epithelial cells. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy provided detailed three-dimensional morphological features of the yeast-epithelial cell association; adhesion ofC. albicans cells to host cells was primarily owing to an interaction between fibrillar layer of the yeast cell wall and the membrane interdigitations of the epithelial cells. Such a particular interconnection between the two cells was confirmed by the freeze-substitution fixation for transmission electron microscopy. These results clearly demonstrate the outermost fibrillar cell wall layer ofC. albicans responsible for adhesion to host cells.
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