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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The submucosal glands are thought to be the primary source of the mucus overlying the primate trachea and conducting airways. This study characterizes the development of submucosal glands in the trachea of the rhesus monkey. Tracheas from 46 age-dated fetal, 8 postnatal and 3 adult rhesus were fixed in glutaraldehyde/paraformaldehyde and slices processed for electron microscopy. The earliest (70 days gestational age (DGA)) indication of gland development was the projection of a group of closely packed electron lucent cells with few organelles and small pockets of glycogen into the submucosa. This configuration was observed up to 110 DGA. In fetuses younger than 87 DGA it was present almost exclusively over cartilaginous areas. Between 80 and 140 DGA, a cylinder of electron lucent cells projected into the submucosal connective tissue perpendicular to the surface. In fetuses younger than 100 DGA, it was restricted to cartilaginous areas. By 90 DGA, some glycogen containing cells in proximal regions contained apical cored granules. By 106 DGA, cells in proximal areas contained apical electron lucent granules. More distal cells had abundant GER and electron dense granules. The most distal cells resembled the undifferentiated cells at younger ages. Ciliated cells were present in the most proximal portions of glands at 120 DGA. This glandular organization was found in older animals, including adults, with the following changes: (1) abundance of proximal cells with electron lucent granules increased; (2) abundance of distal cells with electron dense granules increased; and (3) abundance of distal cells with abundant glycogen and few organelles decreased. We conclude that submucosal gland development in the rhesus monkey: (1) is primarily a prenatal process; (2) occurs first over cartilage; (3) continues into the postnatal period; and (4) involves secretory cell maturation in a proximal to distal sequence with mucous cells differentiating before serous cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We examined histochemically (light microscopy-LM) and cytochemically (electron microscopy-EM) the secretory epithelial cells in the tracheobronchial mucosa of sheep. Six morphologically distinct, granule-containing cells have been described, on the basis of their morphology and airway distribution: four mucous (M1-M4), serous (SC), and Clara (CC). Stereological and morphometric data indicated that M3, M4, SC, and CC were distinctly different from each other and from M1 and M2 cells. Mucous cells M1 and M2 differed in granule morphology. Samples of tracheas, sixth-generation bronchi, distal bronchi, and terminal bronchioles of 18 adult sheep were examined. At the LM level, methacrylate sections were reacted with an alcian blue (pH 2.5), periodic acid Schiff (PAS) sequence to differentiate neutral from acidic glycoconjugates (GC), and a high-iron diamine (HID), alcian blue sequence to differentiate sulfated from nonsulfated (sialated) GC. At the EM level the periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide localized hexose-rich, neutral GC. Dialyzed iron (DI) and high-iron diamine localized carboxylated and sulfated GC, respectively. Granules of all but Clara cells were PAS-positive. All mucous cells contained acidic groups, but only M1 and M4 cells had LM-detectable sulfated GC. At the ultrastructural level, minimal but discernible HID and LID reaction product was observed on granule profiles of M2, M3, and SC, indicating acidic and sulfated GC not detected at the LM level. Histochemically, the sheep tracheobronchial epithelium was more similar to that of humans than some other examined mammalian species.
    Additional Material: 40 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study was designed to characterize the ultrastructure and carbohydrate content of secretory cells in submucosal glands of rhesus monkey and to compare this information with that available for humans. The tracheas from five adult monkeys were fixed by airway infusion, processed, and embedded for both light and transmission electron microscopy. Histochemical stains including alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff, dialyzed iron, and high-iron diamine-alcian blue were applied to serial glycol methacrylate sections. The cytochemical stains used included periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate, high-iron diamine, and low-iron diamine. The glandular secretory cells were divided into four categories based on ultrastructure and location within the gland. Cells in the first category resembled the mucous cell of the surface epithelium and were located in ducts most proximal to the tracheal lumen. The second category consisted of cells that were located in distal ducts and contained large electron-lucent granules. The granules in both of these cell groups contained material that was periodate-reactive and sulfated. Cells of the third category contained granules that were either electron-lucent or electron-dense. These cells, which were difficult to characterize as either serous or mucous, were located in secretory tubules and acini and contained periodate-reactive glyco-conjugates that were either sulfated or nonsulfated. The last category consisted mainly of cells that contained electron-dense granules that were lightly periodate-reactive or a few that were unreactive with any of the cytochemical methods used here. We concluded from this study that 1) the submucosal glands of rhesus monkey contain secretory cells with a variety of morphologies; 2) the secretory cells, which in some cases are not easily identified as mucous or serous, contain material that is periodate-reactive and sulfated, contain material that is periodate-reactive only, or contain no carbohydrate as detected by the cytochemical methods used; and 3) the submucosal glands of rhesus monkey trachea resemble those described in human airways.
    Additional Material: 20 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 210 (1984), S. 293-302 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Three types of nonciliated secretory epithelial cells contribute material to the mucous lining of pulmonary airways: mucous cells, serous cells, and Clara cells. Extensive interspecies variation exists, especially between humans and laboratory mammals, with regard to occurrence, distribution, and granule content of these secretory cells. This study was designed to characterize one aspect of these differences in one species of nonhuman primate, the rhesus monkey. The complex carbohydrates of secretory granules present in the tracheal epithelium were characterized cytochemically. The tracheas of seven monkeys were fixed by airway infusion, processed, and embedded for both light and transmission electron microscopy. Histochemical stains including Alcian blue-periodic acid Schiff, dialyzed iron, and high iron diamine-Alcian blue were applied to serial methacrylate sections. The mucous cells were the predominant secretory cell type of the trachea and contained periodate-reactive sulfated glycoconjugates. The mucous secretory granules, as resolved with the electron microscope, consisted of a mesh or matrix surrounding a biphasic core. The matrix was stained by all cytochemical reactions used, which included periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate, dialyzed iron, low iron diamine, and high iron diamine. The biphasic core also reacted with the four stains, but most intensely with high iron diamine. We conclude from this study that (1) the mucous secretory granule contains carbohydrate throughout all phases of the granule, (2) the mucous granule contains periodate-reactive sulfated glycoconjugates, with sulfate esters concentrated in the core of the granule, and (3) the mucous granules of rhesus trachea morphologically and cytochemically resemble those described in human airways.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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