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  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; MESSENGER-RNA ; COLON-CANCER ; STABILITY ; LIVER METASTASES ; POLYPS ; FALSE DISCOVERY RATE
    Abstract: Deregulation of apoptosis is a frequent alteration in early benign lesions of the colon mucosa and is thought to be a major contributor to tumor progression and cancer. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within apoptosis-related genes could affect apoptotic responses and their identification might provide a basis to assess individual risk for development of early lesions. To investigate a possible association between genetic polymorphisms and the occurrence of hyperplastic polyps (HP), we developed a custom DNA chip assay for 1,536 SNPs in the coding and flanking regions of 826 genes with known functional roles in apoptosis or apoptosis-associated (e. g., stress-related) pathways. During a first round of screening, genotypes were determined for 272 endoscopy patients harboring hyperplastic colorectal polyps and for 512 sex and aged-matched controls. A set of 14 candidate SNPs associated with HP (P 〈 0.01) was then evaluated in an independent cohort of patients (n = 38) and controls (n = 38). Following meta-analysis of Stages I and II, a false discovery rate approach was applied. Among the 14 candidate SNPs, eight showed significant association (combined P 〈 0.01) with the occurrence of HP. The SNPs rs4709583 (PARK2) and rs10476823 (HDAC3) were analyzed for potential functional effects on RNA splicing and RNA half-life. Despite its location near a splice site, alternative splicing was not detected for rs4709583 (PARK3). By contrast, cDNA analysis revealed use of a cryptic polyadenylation signal in the 3'UTR of HDAC3 mRNA and a longer mRNA half-life in a cell line heterozygous for rs10476823.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24861865
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  • 2
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; CELL ; Germany ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; DEATH ; SITE ; PROTEIN ; ACTIVATION ; FAMILY ; REDUCTION ; colon ; BIOLOGY ; MEMBERS ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; MOLECULE ; CLEAVAGE ; CELL-DEATH ; genetics ; CANCER-CELLS ; COLON-CANCER ; ADHESION ; ONCOGENE ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; COLORECTAL CARCINOMAS ; ADHESION MOLECULE ; CELL-ADHESION MOLECULE ; heredity ; CASPASE ; molecular biology ; molecular ; ONCOLOGY ; FAMILIES ; cell adhesion ; LOSSES ; caspases ; CYTOPLASMIC DOMAIN ; ENGLAND ; CELL BIOLOGY ; CELL ADHESION MOLECULE ; BILIARY GLYCOPROTEIN CD66A ; C-CAM ; CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN FAMILY ; CEA ; CEACAM1 ; HUMAN COLON
    Abstract: Marked reduction in apoptosis is a hallmark of early colon tumour growth and the vast majority of these tumours exhibit a loss of expression of the glycoprotein carcinoembryonic-antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1). We recently reported that the CEACAM1 functions as a mediator of apoptosis implicating this cell surface protein in early tumour development. However, the mechanistic involvement of CEACAM1 in cell death pathways is unclear. Here, we show that apoptosis triggers cleavage of the long form of CEACAM1 (CEACAM1-4L) at intracellular and extracellular sites in Jurkat cells and HEK293 cells. Signalling through CEACAM1 leads to caspase activation including caspase-1 and -3 and also involves non-caspase proteases. Moreover, we provide evidence that the naturally occurring CEACAM family member CEA is an inducer of CEACAM1-mediated apoptosis in HT29 colon cancer cells, an effect that depends on the abundance of CEACAM1 on the cell surface. Together, our results demonstrate that the CEACAM1-dependent cell death pathway involves dual cleavage of CEACAM1 and caspase activation and can be activated by CEA
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18278069
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  • 3
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is thought to be an immune-mediated inflammatory process, directed against the epithelial components of the pancreas. The objective was to identify novel markers of disease and to unravel the pathogenesis of AIP. METHODS: To explore key targets of the inflammatory process, we analyzed the expression of proteins at the RNA and protein level using genomics and proteomics, immunohistochemistry, western blot, and immunoassay. An animal model of AIP with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus-infected mice was studied in parallel. RNA microarrays of pancreatic tissue from 12 patients with AIP were compared with those of 8 patients with non-AIP chronic pancreatitis. RESULTS: Expression profiling showed 272 upregulated genes, including those encoding for immunoglobulins, chemokines and their receptors, and 86 downregulated genes, including those for pancreatic proteases such as three trypsinogen isoforms. Protein profiling showed that the expression of trypsinogens and other pancreatic enzymes was greatly reduced. Immunohistochemistry showed a near-loss of trypsin-positive acinar cells, which was also confirmed by western blotting. The serum of AIP patients contained high titers of autoantibodies against the trypsinogens PRSS1 and PRSS2 but not against PRSS3. In addition, there were autoantibodies against the trypsin inhibitor PSTI (the product of the SPINK1 gene). In the pancreas of AIP animals, we found similar protein patterns and a reduction in trypsinogen. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that the immune-mediated process characterizing AIP involves pancreatic acinar cells and their secretory enzymes such as trypsin isoforms. Demonstration of trypsinogen autoantibodies may be helpful for the diagnosis of AIP.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20407433
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  • 4
    Keywords: TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITOR ; CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA ; CHRONIC MYELOID-LEUKEMIA ; CLONAL EVOLUTION ; CHROMOSOMAL INSTABILITY ; ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX ; HUMAN CANCERS ; polo kinase ; blast crisis ; CENTROSOME AMPLIFICATION
    Abstract: Separase, an endopeptidase required for the separation of sister-chromatides in mitotic anaphase, triggers centriole disengagement during centrosome duplication. In cancer, separase is frequently overexpressed, pointing to a functional role as an aneuploidy promoter associated with centrosomal amplification and genomic instability. Recently, we have shown that centrosomal amplification and subsequent chromosomal aberrations are a hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), increasing from chronic phase (CP) toward blast crisis (BC). Moreover, a functional linkage of p210BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase activity with centrosomal amplification and clonal evolution has been established in long-term cell culture experiments. Unexpectedly, therapeutic doses of imatinib (IM) did not counteract; instead induced similar centrosomal alterations in vitro. We investigated the influence of IM and p210BCR-ABL on Separase as a potential driver of centrosomal amplification in CML. Short-term cell cultures of p210BCR-ABL-negative (NHDF, UROtsa, HL-60, U937), positive (K562, LAMA-84) and inducible (U937p210BCR-ABL/c6 (Tet-ON)) human cell lines were treated with therapeutic doses of IM and analyzed by qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis and quantitative Separase activity assays. Decreased Separase protein levels were observed in all cells treated with IM in a dose dependent manner. Accordingly, in all p210BCR-ABL-negative cell lines, decreased proteolytic activity of Separase was found. In contrast, p210BCR-ABL-positive cells showed increased Separase proteolytic activity. This activation of Separase was consistent with changes in the expression levels of Separase regulators (Separase phosphorylation at serine residue 1126, Securin, CyclinB1 and PP2A). Our data suggest that regulation of Separase in IM-treated BCR-ABL-positive cells occurs on both the protein expression and the proteolytic activity levels. Activation of Separase proteolytic activity exclusively in p210BCR-ABL-positive cells during IM treatment may act as a driving force for centrosomal amplification, contributing to genomic instability, clonal evolution and resistance in CML.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22870341
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