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  • 1
    Keywords: Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; GENES ; PATIENT ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; VARIANTS ; CARE ; HEALTH ; genetics ; smoking ; REPLICATION ; TOBACCO ; SINGLE ; REGRESSION ; VARIANT ; DETERMINANTS ; DEPENDENCE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; CATECHOL-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE ; PHARMACOGENETICS ; GENOTYPE ; EVENTS ; pharmacology ; USA ; smoking cessation ; population-based ; biotechnology ; GENERAL-POPULATION ; NICOTINE DEPENDENCE ; COMT ; Genetic ; CONFIDENCE ; historical cohort study ; PROPORTION
    Abstract: Genome-wide studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with smoking behaviour and nicotine dependence. Less is known about genetic determinants of smoking cessation, but rs4680 in COMT has recently been shown to explain a substantial proportion of the variation in cessation in the general population. We attempted to replicate the reported, clinically relevant effect in a population-based retrospective cohort analysis of 1443 ever-heavy smokers, of whom 925 had reached abstinence. In Cox regression models, neither rs4680 nor two polymorphisms nearby were associated with smoking cessation. The adjusted relative cessation rate (95 percent confidence interval) in rs4680 methionine carriers in reference to valine homozygotes was 0.97 (0.83-1.12). The absence of a significant effect of rs4680 in this statistically well-powered study - the 95% confidence interval even excluding the previously reported effect - highlights the need for rigorous replication efforts and suggests that rs4680 genotype should not yet be considered informative for smoking patient care. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 19:657-659 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19584770
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  • 2
    Abstract: Genetic factors contribute to the overall risk of developing nicotine addiction, which is the major cause of preventable deaths in western countries. However, knowledge regarding specific polymorphisms influencing smoking phenotypes remains scarce. In the present study we provide evidence that a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5' untranslated region of CHRM2, the gene coding for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 2 is associated with nicotine addiction. CHRM2 was defined as a candidate gene for nicotine addiction based on previous evidence that linked variations in CHRM2 to alcohol and drug dependence. A total of more than 5,500 subjects representative of the German population were genotyped and assessed regarding their smoking habits. The impact of three SNPs in CHRM2 on smoking behavior/nicotine addiction was investigated using logistic regression models or a quasi-Poisson regression model, respectively. We found the T allele of SNP rs324650 to be associated with an increased risk of smoking/nicotine dependence according to three different models, the recessive models of regular or heavy smokers vs. never-smokers (odds ratio 1.17 in both analyses) and according to the Fagerström index of nicotine addiction. In the analysis stratified by gender this association was only found in females. Our data provide further evidence that variations in CHRM2 may be associated with the genetic risk of addiction in general or with certain personality traits that predispose to the development of addiction. Alternatively, variations in CHRM2 could modulate presynaptic auto-regulation in cholinergic systems and may thereby affect an individual's response to nicotine more specifically. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19644963
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  • 3
    Abstract: Recent studies strongly support an association of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 with nicotine dependence (ND). However, the precise genotype-phenotype relationship is still unknown. Clinical and epidemiological data on smoking behavior raise the possibility that the relevant gene variants may indirectly contribute to the development of ND by affecting cognitive performance in some smokers who consume nicotine for reasons of "cognition enhancement." Here, we tested seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs684513, rs637137, rs16969968, rs578776, rs1051730, rs3743078, rs3813567 from the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster for association with ND, measures of cognitive performance and gene expression. As expected, we found all SNPs being associated with ND in three independent cohorts (KORA, NCOOP, ESTHER) comprising 5,561 individuals. In an overlapping sample of 2,186 subjects we found three SNPs (rs16969968, rs1051730, rs3743078) being associated with cognitive domains from the Wechsler-Adult-Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R)-most notably in the performance subtest "object assembly" and the verbal subtest "similarities." In a refined analysis of a subsample of 485 subjects, two of these three SNPs (rs16969968, rs1051730) were associated with n-back task performance/Continuous Performance Test. Furthermore, two CHRNA5 risk alleles (rs684513, rs637137) were associated with CHRNA5 mRNA expression levels in whole blood in a subgroup of 190 subjects. We here report for the first time an association of CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene variants with cognition possibly mediating in part risk for developing ND. The observed phenotype-genotype associations may depend on altered levels of gene expression.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20886544
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  • 4
    Keywords: LUNG-CANCER ; DISEASE ; GENE ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; VARIANTS ; SNP ; gene-environment interaction ; TOBACCO ; TOBACCO SMOKING ; VARIANT ; ADDICTION ; RETROSPECTIVE COHORT ; smoking cessation ; NICOTINE DEPENDENCE ; retrospective study
    Abstract: Several studies have provided evidence for associations of polymorphisms located in and near dopamine-related genes and nicotine dependence and other smoking-related phenotypes, including pharmacogenetic interactions. Aim: The purpose of the present work was to examine the association of SNPs in the DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) and dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) genes with smoking cessation in a large retrospective study featuring approximately 900 cessation events. Materials & methods: Data originated from the enrollment questionnaire of the epidemiological ESTHER study of community-dwelling adults aged 50-74 years, conducted in the German state of Saarland between July 2000 and December 2002. Restricting the analyses to subjects who reported to have regularly smoked 〉20 cigarettes per day at some point in their life, we used survival analysis methods to model the time from initiation of regular smoking to cessation (defined as quitting with abstinence lasting until enrollment) and its relation with eight polymorphisms in the aforementioned genes (five in DDC, two in DRD2 and one in SLC6A3) in 1446 participants. Results: Neither individual variants nor DDC haplotypes were associated with the probability of overcoming nicotine dependence in this cohort. Conclusion: The repeated suggestion of associations between the variants examined and nicotine dependence in previous reports seems to contrast the negative results in the present study. This would appear consistent with the hypothesis that the establishment of regular heavy smoking might abolish associations between genetic determinants of nicotine dependence and nicotine dependence-related phenotypes, in particular the probability of successful smoking cessation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21806388
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