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  • 1
    ISSN: 1615-6110
    Keywords: Elaeagnaceae ; Hippophae ; sea buckthorn ; Systematics ; taxonomy ; genetic variation ; RAPD
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Genetic diversity has been investigated by the application of molecular markers in, for the first time, all the taxa recognised in recent treatises of the genusHippophae. RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) analyses were conducted with 9 decamer primers, which together yielded 219 polymorphic markers. We found 16 fixed RAPD markers, i.e. markers that either occurred in all plants of a population or were absent from all plants. Several of these markers were useful for analysis of interspecific relationships, whereas others can be considered as taxon-specific markers. Clustering of taxa and populations in our neighbour-joining based dendrogram was in good agreement with some recently suggested taxonomic treatises ofHippophae. Amount and distribution of genetic variability varied considerably between species. Partitioning of molecular variance withinH. rhamnoides supported earlier findings that a considerable part of the total variance resides among subspecies (59.6%) Within-population variability also differed considerably. Percentage polymorphic RAPD loci and Lynch and Milligan within-population gene diversity estimates showed relatively high values for some species close to the geographic centre of origin in Central Asia, e.g.H. tibetana and the putatively hybridogenousH. goniocarpa. Spatial autocorrelation analyses performed on 12 populations ofH. rhamnoides revealed positive autocorrelation of allele frequencies when geographic distances ranged from 0 to 700 km, and no or negative autocorrelation at higher distances. At distances between 700 and 1900 km, we observed deviations from the expected values with strongly negative autocorrelation of allele frequencies. A corresponding relationship between geographic and genetic distances could not be found when the analysis instead was based on one population from each of 8 species.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Rosa sect. Caninae ; Biometrics ; Heterogamy ; RAPD ; Segregation distortion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The dogroses, Rosa sect. Caninae, are polyploid and characterized by their unique meiosis with an unequal number of chromosomes in the male and female gametes. The pollen cells have 7 chromosomes and the egg cells 21, 28 or 35 depending on the ploidy level of the species. The resulting matroclinal inheritance was studied with both morphological and molecular markers in a pair of reciprocal crosses between R. dumalis and R. rubiginosa (2n=35). A canonical discriminant analysis based on seven morphological characters showed only a minor overlapping between the two progeny groups. In addition, the R. dumalis×R. rubiginosa offspring were more heterogeneous than the offspring from the reciprocal cross in each of the characters analysed. Eleven RAPD markers specific for the R. dumalis parent and 10 RAPD markers specific for the R. rubiginosa parent were scored in the offspring. Each of the offspring exhibited either all, or all-but-one, of the seed parent markers. The average number of pollen donor markers found in the offspring was 3.2 (R. dumalis×R. rubiginosa) and 2.7 (R. rubiginosa×R. dumalis). About half of the pollen donor markers were never transmitted to the progeny. This is, to our knowledge, the first time the highly skewed chromosome distribution in Rosa sect. Caninae has been demonstrated with statistically evaluated morphological data and with molecular markers.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Gene diversity ; Isozyme ; Non-neutrality ; RAPD ; Rosaceae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  RAPD and isozyme analyses based on numerous markers have been used for the first time to investigate patterns of phenetic and genetic differentiation among and within nine wild populations of the genus Chaenomeles represented by the species C. japonica, C. speciosa, C. cathayensis and C. thibetica. Highly significant correlations were found between the two different marker systems for both phenetic distances and gene diversity estimates. In agreement with previous studies on cultivated Chaenomeles material, C. japonica was clearly differentiated from C. speciosa and C. cathayensis. The recently recognised species C. thibetica appeared to be rather closely related to C. cathayensis. Populations of C. japonica and C. speciosa were considerably more diverse than populations of C. cathayensis and C. thibetica. Correspondingly, most of the total variability could be attributed to the within-population differentiation in the case of C. japonica and C. speciosa, and to the between-population differentiation in the case of C. cathayensis. Differences in mating systems among the species can be suggested as a possible explanation of the results. A discordant pattern was found between RAPDs and isozymes in the analyses of population structure within C. japonica. This may be explained by a higher proportion of non-neutral markers for isozymes than for RAPDs. This finding also shows the importance of using multiple molecular marker systems in studies of population structure.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: DNA fingerprint ; Apple ; Cherry ; Black-berry ; Raspberry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Recently, “DNA fingerprints” have been reported in a wide array of organisms. We used the M13 repeat probe on several genera and species in the angiosperm family Rosaceae. Four apple cultivars could be differentiated when any one of five restriction enzymes was used to analyze minisatellite DNA. Similarly, four individual trees of Prunus serotina (black cherry) exhibited different “fingerprints” with each of four enyzmes. A total of 14 Rubus (blackberries and raspberries) plants representing four species were investigated with two enzymes. Extensive inter-and intraspecific variation was found. However, some closely growing plants had identical “fingerprints”, probably due to their being derived through vegetative propagation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: DNA fingerprint ; M13 probe ; RFLP ; Paternity analysis ; Apple
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Analysis of minisatellite DNA sequences, yielding so called DNA “fingerprints”, has proven useful in paternity analysis for several different organisms. Here 64 apple seedlings, grown from seeds collected in an orchard with three cultivars, were analyzed using the M13 “fingerprint” probe. Paternity could be determined for 56 of the seedlings, 2 of which were derived through selfing. The analysis was facilitated by the occurrence of a multiallelic locus. The five different fragments determined by this locus migrated to similar positions, whether digesting the DNA with restriction enzymes TaqI or RsaI.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Oecologia 72 (1987), S. 562-568 
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Pollination ; Pollen/ovule ratio ; Automatic selfing ; Rubus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Pseudogamous blackberry species are polyploid and usually exhibit meiotic irregularities causing severe reduction in pollen viability. When species means were compared, relative seed set was strongly correlated with the number of good pollen grains produced per flower divided by the number of ovules (good-pollen/ovule ratio). Partial correlation analysis for percentage viable pollen and relative seed set, controlling for good-pollen/ovule ratio, revealed an almost significant relationship, presumably because meiotic irregularities have a similar effect on both pollen viability and the viability of meiotically derived embryo sacs. Seed germination, on the other hand, showed no relationship with relative seed set or with pollen viability. The automatic selfing capacity exhibited by most of these blackberry species does not appear to be related to either pollen production or relative seed set.
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