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  • 1
    Unknown
    Berlin : Springer
    Keywords: Medicine ; Family medicine ; Obstetrics ; Nuclear Medicine ; Internal Medicine ; Endocrinology ; Oncology ; Medicine & Public Health ; General Practice / Family Medicine ; Internal Medicine ; Endocrinology ; Nuclear Medicine ; Oncology ; Obstetrics/Perinatology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9783642132629
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  • 2
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    Unknown
    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  PTCOG 48; Meeting of the Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group; 20090928-20091003; Heidelberg; DOC09ptcog153 /20090924/
    Publication Date: 2009-09-25
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
  • 4
    Keywords: GUIDELINES ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; screening ; CANCER ; DIAGNOSIS
    Type of Publication: Book
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  • 5
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    Unknown
    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  GMS Krankenhaushygiene Interdisziplinär; VOL: 2; DOC09 /20070913/
    Publication Date: 2007-09-14
    Description: In the early 60s the first specialists for hospital hygiene came on the scene in Scandinavia too. From the outset this new discipline was based on cooperation between doctors and nurses, with the support of hospital-based microbiology laboratories and of sterilization departments. Teaching programs were soon devised, with training being underpinned by manuals featuring working instructions. Automated washing facilities for bedpans, etc. or washing machines for medical instruments became widespread practice very quickly; these initially used hot water, and later steam, for disinfection. For many years now, this equipment is found not only in hospitals but in virtually all healthcare establishments too. This has considerably helped to reduce chemical disinfection of medical instruments. As regards disinfection of heat-sensitive instruments the Scandinavian countries adopted different approaches: Finland gave preference to ethylene oxide sterilization, while Sweden opted for lower temperatures and for formaldehyde (low-temperature, steam formaldehyde (LTSF) sterilization), a technique imported from England and further developed in Sweden. During the 70s there were several cases of hepatitis B infections contracted in hospitals, particularly in dialysis units and by hospital personnel. The requirement that gloves be worn when carrying out working procedures has resulted in a major decrease in the infection rate and has helped to prevent HIV (AIDS) infections. However, to date it has not been possible to offset the risk of bloodborne infection against latex intolerance. Infection statistics were introduced in the 80s and since the late 90s we, too, are waging battle (later than other countries) against resistant bacteria (MRSA, VRE, multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria). For some years now we no longer use the term "hospital hygiene" either, using instead "infection in healthcare settings" in view of the extended fields of application. Whether our strategy has proved successful for prevention of infection? Who could give a clear answer to such a question? Cost pressures in the healthcare sector will have a negative effect on the infection rate despite the fact that the progress made by science should really bring about a reduction in this rate. This conjures up a situation analogous to that of a downward escalator that one is trying to ascend: it is as if one were not moving, not making any progress.
    Description: In den frühen 60er Jahren tauchten auch in Skandinavien die ersten Spezialisten für Krankenhaushygiene auf. Die neue Disziplin basierte von Beginn an auf der Zusammenarbeit von Ärzten und dem Pflegepersonal, unterstützt von mikrobiologischen Laboratorien in den Krankenhäusern sowie Sterilisationsabteilungen. Die Lehren wurden schnell angenommen. Handbücher mit Arbeitsanweisungen erleichterten Schulung und Training. Besonders schnell wurden die automatischen Waschanlagen für Bettpfannen etc oder die Waschmaschinen für medizinische Instrumente akzeptiert, die zunächst mit Hilfe von heißem Wasser, später mit Dampf desinfizierten. Seit vielen Jahren findet man diese Geräte nicht nur in Krankenhäusern, sondern in praktisch allen Einrichtungen des Gesundheitswesens. Das hat dabei geholfen, die chemische Desinfektion von medizinischen Instrumenten deutlich zu reduzieren. Bei der Desinfektion Wärme-empfindlicher Gerätschaften gingen die skandinavischen Ländern unterschiedliche Wege: Finnland bevorzugte die Äthylenoxid-Sterilisation, Schweden entschied sich für niedrigere Temperaturen und Formaldehyd (LTSF), ein Verfahren, das aus England übernommen und in Schweden weiter entwickelt worden war. In den 70er Jahren kam es zu etlichen Hepatitis B Infektionen in Krankenhäusern, vorzugsweise in Dialyse-Einheiten, betroffen waren vor allem Krankenhausmitarbeiter. Die Anforderung, Handschuhe während der Arbeit zu tragen, hat die Zahl der Infektionen drastisch reduziert und auch dabei geholfen, AIDS Infektionen zu verhindern. Die Balance zwischen dem Risiko einer Infektion über Blut und der Unverträglichkeit gegenüber Latex ist allerdings noch nicht gefunden. In den 80er Jahren wurden die Infektionsstatistiken eingeführt und seit den späten 90er Jahren kämpfen auch wir nun (später als andere Länder) gegen resistente Keime (MRSA, VRE, multi-resistente gramnegative Keime). Seit einigen Jahren sprechen wir auch nicht mehr von der "Krankenhaushygiene", sondern, auf Grund des erweiterten Anwendungsbereichs, von "Infektionen im Gesundheitswesen". Ob wir mit unserem Weg erfolgreich sind in der Abwehr von Infektionen? Wer könnte eine solche Frage eindeutig beantworten? Der Kostendruck im Gesundheitswesen wird sich auf die Infektionsrate negativ auswirken, obwohl der Fortschritt in der Wissenschaft eigentlich zu einer Senkung führen sollte. Wie auf einer Rolltreppe, der nach unten fährt, und auf der man versucht, nach oben zu kommen: Das wirkt, als stände man still, als käme man nicht voran.
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: article
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The synthesis of the small, cytoplasmic protein UspA universal stress protein A) of Escherichia coli is induced as soon as the cell growth rate falls below the maximal growth rate supported by the medium, regardless of the condition inhibiting growth. The increase in UspA synthesis appears to be the result of Induction of the monocistronic uspA gene. Induction of this gene during a heat-shock treatment is demonstrated to be the result of transcriptional activation of σ70-dependent promoter which has previously been shown to be activated also during carbon starvation-induced growth arrest. Mutant cells lacking UspA grow at rates indistinguisible from the isogenic parent at different temperatures and in the presence of different growth inhibitors but are impaired in their ability to survive prolonged periods of complete growth inhibition caused by a variety of diverse stresses, including CdCl2, H2O2, DNP, CCCP exposure, and osmotic shock. Moreover, the uspA mutation results in an increased sensitivity of cells to carbon-source starvation (i.e. glucose, glycerol or succinate depletion). Also, the mutation causes a marked alteration in the timing of starvation protein expression but protein expression during steady-state growth appears to be normal. The results presented have prompted us to postulate that UspA may have a general protective function related to the growth arrest state.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: paracetamol ; preoperative administration ; postoperative administration ; analgesic activity ; cross-over study ; oral surgery
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A double-blind, randomized cross-over trial was carried out in 50 patients undergoing surgical removal of bilaterally impacted lower wisdom teeth. Surgery in each patient was performed twice and paracetamol 1000 mg was administered once preoperatively and once postoperatively. The time interval to additional analgesic intake and the pain intensity up to and at that time were assessed. There was no difference between the 2 treatments. It was concluded that preoperative paracetamol does not offer any clinical advantage in patients who undergo surgical removal of impacted lower wisdom teeth.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Parkinson's disease ; Levodopa ; intraduodenal infusion ; PLM-test ; video ratings ; plasma level response ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Motor performance of five patients with advanced Parkinson's disease was investigated during their optimum oral therapy (conventional tablets and/or depot capsules) and during a continuous duodenal infusion of levodopa. Due to the low water solubility of the drug, conventional tablets of levodopa + carbidopa (Sinemet®) were milled and dispersed in a 1.8% aqueous methylcellulose solution. The dispersion was delivered nasoduodenally by a portable pump. The effect of levodopa in the two dosing regimens was estimated optico-electronically every 15 min and was also evaluated from videorecordings every 30 min and plasma levels of levodopa was regularly measured. Each dosage regimen the was studied twice, at a 2–4 day interval. Duodenal infusion improved motor function in all five patients and the fluctuations were reduced when compared to the oral therapy. Variation in plasma levodopa concentrations was 3–10 fold during oral therapy, while during the infusion a stable concentration was obtained. The therapeutic concentration varied from 0.3–3 μg ml−1 between patients. The relative bioavailability of levodopa in the solid preparation compared to the dispersion was in all patients 100%. Our results encourage further development of a duodenal infusion system with a levodopa dispersion for clinical use in parkinsonian patients who show severe fluctuation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words     Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome ; Parental imprinting ; IGF2 polymorphisms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract      The Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is characterised by congenital malformations and organomegaly associated with an increased risk for development of childhood neoplasms. Both a sporadic and a familial form have been described in the literature. It has been suggested that duplications or rearrangements of the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p15.5) underlie the aetiology of the disease. This region of chromosome 11 contains the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, which has been shown to be parentally imprinted in the sporadic form of the BWS with only the active, paternally-derived allele being duplicated. The familial form of BWS, which exhibits a predominantly maternal inheritance, has been suggested to result from a relaxation of IGF2 imprinting. This could render both parental IGF2 alleles active, thereby generating a similar gene dosage as in the sporadic from of the BWS. To address this issue, we used an RNase protection assay based upon a polymorphic region within exon nine of IGF2. We show here that only the paternally-inherited IGF2 allele is transcriptionally active in the index patient of one family with inherited BWS. In addition, highly informative IGF2 DNA markers were used to perform linkage analysis. Since these data ruled out a common maternally-transmitted IGF2 allele in the affected patients, we argue that IGF2 cannot be linked to the hereditary form to the disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome ; Parental imprinting ; IGF2 polymorphisms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is characterised by congenital malformations and organomegaly associated with an increased risk for development of childhood neoplasms. Both a sporadic and a familial form have been described in the literature. It has been suggested that duplications or rearrangements of the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p15.5) underlie the aetiology of the disease. This region of chromosome 11 contains the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, which has been shown to be parentally imprinted in the sporadic form of the BWS with only the active, paternally-derived allele being duplicated. The familial form of BWS, which exhibits a predominantly maternal inheritance, has been suggested to result from a relaxation of IGF2 imprinting. This could render both parental IGF2 alleles active, thereby generating a similar gene dosage as in the sporadic from of the BWS. To address this issue, we used an RNase protection assay based upon a polymorphic region within exon nine of IGF2. We show here that only the paternally-inherited IGF2 allele is transcriptionally active in the index patient of one family with inherited BWS. In addition, highly informative IGF2 DNA markers were used to perform linkage analysis. Since these data ruled out a common maternally-transmitted IGF2 allele in the affected patients, we argue that IGF2 cannot be linked to the hereditary form to the disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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