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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-02-07
    Description: Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260937/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260937/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Correia, Bruno E -- Bates, John T -- Loomis, Rebecca J -- Baneyx, Gretchen -- Carrico, Chris -- Jardine, Joseph G -- Rupert, Peter -- Correnti, Colin -- Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr -- Vittal, Vinayak -- Connell, Mary J -- Stevens, Eric -- Schroeter, Alexandria -- Chen, Man -- Macpherson, Skye -- Serra, Andreia M -- Adachi, Yumiko -- Holmes, Margaret A -- Li, Yuxing -- Klevit, Rachel E -- Graham, Barney S -- Wyatt, Richard T -- Baker, David -- Strong, Roland K -- Crowe, James E Jr -- Johnson, Philip R -- Schief, William R -- 1R01AI102766-01A1/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 1UM1AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 2T32GM007270/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- 5R21AI088554/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI094419/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01AI094419/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI036214/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI045008/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30AI36214/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI102766/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI088554/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA080416/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007270/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32CA080416/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI 005714/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057141/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 13;507(7491):201-6. doi: 10.1038/nature12966. Epub 2014 Feb 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] PhD Program in Computational Biology, Instituto Gulbenkian Ciencia and Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras 2780-157, Portugal [3] Department of Chemical Physiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109-1024, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [3] IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [4] Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [3] Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109-1024, USA [2]. ; 1] Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [3] Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; 1] The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA [2] Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA [3] Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24499818" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Motifs ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis/immunology ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis/immunology ; Antibodies, Viral/analysis/immunology ; Antigens, Viral/chemistry/immunology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; *Drug Design ; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ; Epitopes/*chemistry/*immunology ; Macaca mulatta/immunology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Models, Molecular ; Neutralization Tests ; Protein Conformation ; *Protein Stability ; Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/*chemistry/*immunology ; Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/chemistry/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-10-25
    Description: The manipulation of protein backbone structure to control interaction and function is a challenge for protein engineering. We integrated computational design with experimental selection for grafting the backbone and side chains of a two-segment HIV gp120 epitope, targeted by the cross-neutralizing antibody b12, onto an unrelated scaffold protein. The final scaffolds bound b12 with high specificity and with affinity similar to that of gp120, and crystallographic analysis of a scaffold bound to b12 revealed high structural mimicry of the gp120-b12 complex structure. The method can be generalized to design other functional proteins through backbone grafting.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Azoitei, Mihai L -- Correia, Bruno E -- Ban, Yih-En Andrew -- Carrico, Chris -- Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr -- Chen, Lei -- Schroeter, Alexandria -- Huang, Po-Ssu -- McLellan, Jason S -- Kwong, Peter D -- Baker, David -- Strong, Roland K -- Schief, William R -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Oct 21;334(6054):373-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1209368.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021856" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Amino Acid Motifs ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry/immunology/metabolism ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/*chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; Antibody Affinity ; Antibody Specificity ; Antigens, CD4/metabolism ; Computational Biology ; Computer Simulation ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Epitopes/immunology ; HIV Antibodies/chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120/*chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Mimicry ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis ; Protein Conformation ; *Protein Engineering ; Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs ; Surface Plasmon Resonance
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-06-20
    Description: A major goal of HIV-1 vaccine research is the design of immunogens capable of inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that bind to the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). Poor binding of Env to unmutated precursors of bnAbs, including those of the VRC01 class, appears to be a major problem for bnAb induction. We engineered an immunogen that binds to VRC01-class bnAb precursors and immunized knock-in mice expressing germline-reverted VRC01 heavy chains. Induced antibodies showed characteristics of VRC01-class bnAbs, including a short CDRL3 (light-chain complementarity-determining region 3) and mutations that favored binding to near-native HIV-1 gp120 constructs. In contrast, native-like immunogens failed to activate VRC01-class precursors. The results suggest that rational epitope design can prime rare B cell precursors for affinity maturation to desired targets.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4669217/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4669217/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jardine, Joseph G -- Ota, Takayuki -- Sok, Devin -- Pauthner, Matthias -- Kulp, Daniel W -- Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr -- Skog, Patrick D -- Thinnes, Theresa C -- Bhullar, Deepika -- Briney, Bryan -- Menis, Sergey -- Jones, Meaghan -- Kubitz, Mike -- Spencer, Skye -- Adachi, Yumiko -- Burton, Dennis R -- Schief, William R -- Nemazee, David -- 1UM1AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI094419/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01AI081625/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI073148/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI081625/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01-AI073148/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007244/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 10;349(6244):156-61. doi: 10.1126/science.aac5894. Epub 2015 Jun 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) Neutralizing Antibody Center (NAC), The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) Neutralizing Antibody Center (NAC), The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02129, USA. nemazee@scripps.edu schief@scripps.edu burton@scripps.edu. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. nemazee@scripps.edu schief@scripps.edu burton@scripps.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26089355" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/*immunology ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/biosynthesis/*immunology ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis/*immunology ; Antibody Affinity ; B-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Complementarity Determining Regions/genetics/immunology ; Epitopes/genetics/immunology ; HIV Antibodies/biosynthesis/*immunology ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120/genetics/*immunology ; HIV Infections/*prevention & control ; HIV-1/*immunology ; Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/genetics/immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-09-29
    Description: Although coagulation factors play a role in host defense for "living fossils" such as horseshoe crabs, the role of the coagulation system in immunity in higher organisms remains unclear. We modeled the interface of human species C adenovirus (HAdv) interaction with coagulation factor X (FX) and introduced a mutation that abrogated formation of the HAdv-FX complex. In vivo genome-wide transcriptional profiling revealed that FX-binding-ablated virus failed to activate a distinct network of nuclear factor kappaB-dependent early-response genes that are activated by HAdv-FX complex downstream of TLR4/MyD88/TRIF/TRAF6 signaling. Our study implicates host factor "decoration" of the virus as a mechanism to trigger an innate immune sensor that responds to a misplacement of coagulation FX from the blood into intracellular macrophage compartments upon virus entry into the cell.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4762479/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4762479/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Doronin, Konstantin -- Flatt, Justin W -- Di Paolo, Nelson C -- Khare, Reeti -- Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr -- Acchione, Mauro -- Sumida, John P -- Ohto, Umeharu -- Shimizu, Toshiyuki -- Akashi-Takamura, Sachiko -- Miyake, Kensuke -- MacDonald, James W -- Bammler, Theo K -- Beyer, Richard P -- Farin, Frederico M -- Stewart, Phoebe L -- Shayakhmetov, Dmitry M -- AI065429/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA141439/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30ES07033/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI065429/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA141439/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Nov 9;338(6108):795-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1226625. Epub 2012 Sep 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23019612" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenoviridae Infections/*immunology/metabolism/virology ; Adenoviruses, Human/genetics/*immunology/*metabolism ; Animals ; CHO Cells ; Capsid Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cricetinae ; Cricetulus ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Cytokines/metabolism ; Factor X/chemistry/*metabolism ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Hepatocytes/virology ; Humans ; *Immunity, Innate ; Macrophages/metabolism/virology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Molecular Dynamics Simulation ; Mutation ; NF-kappa B/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Virus Internalization
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-03-30
    Description: Vaccine development to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 is a global health priority. Potent VRC01-class bNAbs against the CD4 binding site of HIV gp120 have been isolated from HIV-1-infected individuals; however, such bNAbs have not been induced by vaccination. Wild-type gp120 proteins lack detectable affinity for predicted germline precursors of VRC01-class bNAbs, making them poor immunogens to prime a VRC01-class response. We employed computation-guided, in vitro screening to engineer a germline-targeting gp120 outer domain immunogen that binds to multiple VRC01-class bNAbs and germline precursors, and elucidated germline binding crystallographically. When multimerized on nanoparticles, this immunogen (eOD-GT6) activates germline and mature VRC01-class B cells. Thus, eOD-GT6 nanoparticles have promise as a vaccine prime. In principle, germline-targeting strategies could be applied to other epitopes and pathogens.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3689846/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3689846/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jardine, Joseph -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- Menis, Sergey -- Ota, Takayuki -- Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr -- McGuire, Andrew -- Sok, Devin -- Huang, Po-Ssu -- MacPherson, Skye -- Jones, Meaghan -- Nieusma, Travis -- Mathison, John -- Baker, David -- Ward, Andrew B -- Burton, Dennis R -- Stamatatos, Leonidas -- Nemazee, David -- Wilson, Ian A -- Schief, William R -- 5T32AI007606-10/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI081625/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI33292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI84817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI094419/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI027767-24/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P41RR001209/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI033292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI073148/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI081625/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI033292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA080416/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32CA080416/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Y1-CO-1020/CO/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Y1-GM-1104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 May 10;340(6133):711-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1234150. Epub 2013 Mar 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23539181" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/chemistry/genetics/*immunology ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology ; Antigens, CD4/immunology ; B-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Germ Cells/*immunology ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120/chemistry/genetics/*immunology ; HIV Infections/*prevention & control ; HIV-1/*immunology ; Humans ; Macaca ; Mice ; Models, Animal ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nanoparticles ; Protein Engineering ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a major HIV vaccine goal. Germline-targeting immunogens aim to initiate bnAb induction by activating bnAb germline precursor B cells. Critical unmet challenges are to determine whether bnAb precursor naive B cells bind germline-targeting immunogens and occur at sufficient frequency in humans for reliable vaccine responses. Using deep mutational scanning and multitarget optimization, we developed a germline-targeting immunogen (eOD-GT8) for diverse VRC01-class bnAbs. We then used the immunogen to isolate VRC01-class precursor naive B cells from HIV-uninfected donors. Frequencies of true VRC01-class precursors, their structures, and their eOD-GT8 affinities support this immunogen as a candidate human vaccine prime. These methods could be applied to germline targeting for other classes of HIV bnAbs and for Abs to other pathogens.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872700/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872700/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jardine, Joseph G -- Kulp, Daniel W -- Havenar-Daughton, Colin -- Sarkar, Anita -- Briney, Bryan -- Sok, Devin -- Sesterhenn, Fabian -- Ereno-Orbea, June -- Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr -- Deresa, Isaiah -- Hu, Xiaozhen -- Spencer, Skye -- Jones, Meaghan -- Georgeson, Erik -- Adachi, Yumiko -- Kubitz, Michael -- deCamp, Allan C -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- Wilson, Ian A -- Burton, Dennis R -- Crotty, Shane -- Schief, William R -- P01 AI094419/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI110657/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P41GM103393/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1458-63. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9195.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Program in Molecular Structure and Function, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Statistical Center for HIV/AIDS Research and Prevention (SCHARP), Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Program in Molecular Structure and Function, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada. Departments of Biochemistry and Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02129, USA. ; Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA. schief@scripps.edu shane@lji.org. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02129, USA. schief@scripps.edu shane@lji.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013733" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/*immunology ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry/*immunology/isolation & purification ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry/*immunology/isolation & purification ; Antibody Affinity ; B-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Cell Separation ; Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques ; Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry/genetics/*immunology ; Germ Cells/*immunology ; HIV Antibodies/chemistry/*immunology/isolation & purification ; HIV-1/*immunology ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Peptide Library ; Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid/*immunology ; Protein Conformation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: Traditional vaccine development to prevent some of the worst current pandemic diseases has been unsuccessful so far. Germline-targeting immunogens have potential to prime protective antibodies (Abs) via more targeted immune responses. Success of germline-targeting vaccines in humans will depend on the composition of the human naive B cell repertoire, including the frequencies and affinities of epitope-specific B cells. However, the human naive B cell repertoire remains largely undefined. Assessment of antigen-specific human naive B cells among hundreds of millions of B cells from multiple donors may be used as pre–phase 1 ex vivo human testing to potentially forecast B cell and Ab responses to new vaccine designs. VRC01 is an HIV broadly neutralizing Ab (bnAb) against the envelope CD4-binding site (CD4bs). We characterized naive human B cells recognizing eOD-GT8, a germline-targeting HIV-1 vaccine candidate immunogen designed to prime VRC01-class Abs. Several distinct subclasses of VRC01-class naive B cells were identified, sharing sequence characteristics with inferred precursors of known bnAbs VRC01, VRC23, PCIN63, and N6. Multiple naive B cell clones exactly matched mature VRC01-class bnAb L-CDR3 sequences. Non–VRC01-class B cells were also characterized, revealing recurrent public light chain sequences. Unexpectedly, we also identified naive B cells related to the IOMA-class CD4bs bnAb. These different subclasses within the human repertoire had strong initial affinities ( K D ) to the immunogen, up to 13 nM, and represent encouraging indications that multiple independent pathways may exist for vaccine-elicited VRC01-class bnAb development in most individuals. The frequencies of these distinct eOD-GT8 B cell specificities give insights into antigen-specific compositional features of the human naive B cell repertoire and provide actionable information for vaccine design and advancement.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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