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  • 1
    Abstract: MALT1 channels proximal T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling to downstream signalling pathways. With MALT1A and MALT1B two conserved splice variants exist and we demonstrate here that MALT1 alternative splicing supports optimal T-cell activation. Inclusion of exon7 in MALT1A facilitates the recruitment of TRAF6, which augments MALT1 scaffolding function, but not protease activity. Naive CD4(+) T cells express almost exclusively MALT1B and MALT1A expression is induced by TCR stimulation. We identify hnRNP U as a suppressor of exon7 inclusion. Whereas selective depletion of MALT1A impairs T-cell signalling and activation, downregulation of hnRNP U enhances MALT1A expression and T-cell activation. Thus, TCR-induced alternative splicing augments MALT1 scaffolding to enhance downstream signalling and to promote optimal T-cell activation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27068814
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. Spontaneous activity and responses to simple tonal stimuli were studied in cochlear ganglion neurones of the starling. 2. Both regular and irregular spontaneous activity were recorded (Figs. 1 to 5). Non-auditory cells have their origin in the macula lagenae. Mean spontaneous rate for auditory cells (all irregularly spiking) was 45 spikes s−1. 3. In half the units having characteristic frequencies (CFs) 〈1.5 kHz, time-interval histograms (TIHs) of spontaneous activity showed regularly-spaced peaks or ‘preferred’ intervals. The spacing of the peak intervals was, on average, 15% greater than the CF-period interval of the respective units (Fig. 11). 4. In TIH of lower-frequency cells without preferred intervals, the modal interval was also on average about 15% longer than the CF-period interval (Fig. 11). Apparently, the resting oscillation frequency of these cells lies below their CF. 5. Tuning curves (TCs) of neurones to short tone bursts show no systematic asymmetry as in mammals. Below CF 1 kHz, the low-frequency flanks of the TCs are, on average, steeper than the high-frequency flanks. Above CF 1 kHz, the reverse is true (Fig. 15). 6. The cochlear ganglion and nerve are tonotopically organized. Low-frequency fibres arise apically in the papilla basilaris and are found near non-auditory (lagenar) fibres (Figs. 2 and 19). 7. Discharge rates to short tones were monotonically related to sound presure level (Fig. 20). Saturation rates often exceeded 300 spikes s−1. 8. ‘On-off’ responses and primary suppression of spontaneous activity were observed (Figs. 22 and 23). 9. A direct comparison of spontaneous activity and tuning-curve symmetry (Fig. 15b) revealed that, apart from quantative differences, fundamental qualitative differences exist between starling and guinea-pig primary afferents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of neurology 72 (1921), S. 294-309 
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of electrically-elicited middle ear muscle (MEM) contractions on cochlear microphonic potentials (CM) was studied in anesthetized starlings. In addition, the presence or absence of acoustic MEM reflexes was explored in awake starlings and one tawny owl, using the CM for detecting MEM contractions. The most commonly observed effect of electrically-elicited contractions in the anesthetized starlings was a frequency-dependent decrease in CM-amplitude (Fig. 2a) and a shift of the CM input-output functions towards higher SPL's (Fig. 3). It is concluded that the MEM might act as a bandpass filter exerting a (limited) protective effect against acoustic overstimulation of the ear and be capable of extending the ear's dynamic range to higher SPL's. A further physiological significance is discussed. Characteristic CM amplitude modulations, which have previously been shown to result from acoustic reflex contractions of the MEM, were observed in the awake tawny owl, but not in the starlings (Fig. 4).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the present study three groups of cochlear ganglion neurones were detected which differed in respect to their tone-evoked and spontaneous activity: auditory units which showed an irregular spontaneous discharge, non-auditory neurones with regular activity and such with an irregular spontaneous discharge pattern. Electricallyelicited contractions of the middle-ear muscle influenced the tone-evoked and/or the spontaneous activity of the auditory and the non-auditory neurones with irregular spontaneous discharge but not, however, the regularly firing units (Figs. 1–4). Similar results were obtained with imposed perilymph movements in the cochlea (evoked via the vestibular system; Figs. 5, 6). Fractions of all three groups of cochlear ganglion neurones were responsive to direct deformations of the membraneous lagena (Figs. 7, 8). Several (auditory and non-auditory) units with irregular discharge were excited during a basilar membrane displacement towards scala vestibuli whereas a basilar membrane motion towards scala tympani resulted in a decrease of the discharge rate. A few units showed a different reaction. The results provide evidence that the neurones with periodic spontaneous discharge innervate the lagena and that this sense organ has no auditory significance in birds. The peripheral origin of the ‘non-auditory’ neurones with irregular spontaneous activity remains undecided and might be the macula lagenae or the apical portion of the basilar papilla.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Gastric secretion was examined in 94 outpatients following the administration of 0,01 mg and 0,03 mg HD/kg body weight, respectively. In addition, gastric mucosa was obtained by biopsy and examined histologically. Acid secretion decreased progressively with increasing severity of mucosal atrophy. Acid secretion following stimulation with 0,01 mg HD/kg body weight in normal subjects was 65 ± 20% /30 min and 64 ± 20% /60 min of the corresponding maximal secretory ability. In the presence of inflammatory changes of the mucosa with and without atrophy, the ratio was usually between 0,63–0,69 and 0,59–0,64 respectively. Thus, there was no evidence of functional impairment of acid secretion following submaximal histamine stimulation with these mucosal changes. However, there is large spread of values for this ratio due to neurohumeral influences in varions morphologic states of the mucosa. Acid secretion following submaximal histamine stimulation does not allow conclusions as to the maximal secretory ability following maximal stimulation in the individual case.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Bei 94 poliklinischen Patienten wurde die Magensaftsekretion nach 0,01 mg und 0,03 mg HD/kg Körpergewicht sowie die gastrobioptisch gewonnene Schleimhaut histologisch untersucht. Die Säuresekretion fiel insgesamt mit zunehmender degenerativer Schleimhautschädigung ab. Sie beträgt nach 0,01 mg HD/kg Körpergewicht bei Normalpersonen 65 ± 20% /30 min bzw. 64 ± 20% /60 min der entsprechenden maximalen Sekretionsleistung. Das Verhältnis Säuresekretion nach 0,01 mg HD/kg Körpergewicht/30 min/Säuresekretion nach 0,03 mg HD/kg Körpergewicht/30 min lag bei entzündlichen Schleimhautveränderungen ohne und mit Atrophie durchschnittlich zwischen 0,63 bis 0,69 bzw. 0,59 bis 0,64, so daß bei derartigen Schleimhautveränderungen insgesamt keine funktionell bedingte Einschränkung der Säuresekretion nach submaximaler Histaminbelastung besteht. Die Streuung dieses Verhältnisses ist infolge neurohumoraler Einflüsse aber bei allen morphologischen Zustandsbildern der Schleimhaut so weit, daß aus der Säuresekretion nach submaximaler Histaminbelastung im Einzelfall keine Rückschlüsse auf die maximale Sekretion gezogen werden können.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Naturwissenschaften 62 (1975), S. 582-582 
    ISSN: 1432-1904
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Lung 63 (1926), S. 883-894 
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular medicine 45 (1967), S. 809-814 
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Gastric secretion following histamine stimulation with 0.03 mg/kg histamine-hydrochloride and gastric mucosa biopsies were studied in 207 outpatients. When comparing capacity of acid secretion and corpus mucosa histology a decrease of acid secretion with increasing mucosa atrophy was found. Except in cases with atrophic gastritis acid secretion in female patients amounted to approximately 70% of the one found in male patients irrespective of the appearance of corpus mucosa histology. An influence of age and weight on acid secretion could be verified only in some of our subgroups. The normal range for male individuals with normal corpus mucosa was 10.2±3.9 mval HCl/30 min and 17.4±6.9 mval HCl/h and for female individuals 7.0±2.5 mval HCl/30 min and 12.1±5.1 mval HCl/h. The augmented histamine test has only limited value in the diagnosis of gastritis because of the wide variation of acid secretion in different histologically defined entities.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung 207 poliklinische Patienten wurden einer Magensaftuntersuchung nach 0,03 mg Histamindihydrochlorid/kg Körpergewicht und einer gastrobioptischen Untersuchung unterzogen. Die Gegenüberstellung von Säuresekretionsleistung und morphologischem Befund der Korpusschleimhaut ergab eine Abnahme der Säuresekretion mit zunehmender Schleimhautatrophie. Die Säuresekretion weiblicher Personen betrug mit Ausnahme der atrophischen Gastritis, unabhängig vom morphologischen Zustandsbild der Korpusschleimhaut ca. 70% jener männlicher Personen. Ein Einfluß des Lebensalters und des Körpergewichtes auf die Säuresekretion konnte nur in einzelnen Patientengruppen gesichert werden. Bei der Einteilung der Säuresekretionsstörungen nach morphologischen Gesichtspunkten ergab sich ein Normalbereich von 10,2±3,9 mval HCl/30 min oder 17,4±6,9 mval HCl/h für männliche Personen und von 7,0±2,5 mval HCl/30 min oder 12,1±5,1 mval HCl/h für weibliche Personen. Die Magensaftuntersuchung nach maximaler Histaminbelastung besitzt wegen der breiten Streuung der Säuresekretion bei den verschiedenen morphologischen Zustandsbildern der Magenschleimhaut nur eine sehr begrenzte Bedeutung für die Diagnostik der Gastritis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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