Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: Key words Milk composition ; Lactation ; Calcium ; Bats ; Phyllostomatidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Growth rates of mammalian young are closely linked to the ability of the mother to provide nutrients; thus, milk composition and yield provide a direct measure of maternal investment during lactation in many mammals. We studied changes in milk composition and output throughout lactation in a free-ranging population of the omnivorous bat, Phyllostomus hastatus. Fat and dry matter of milk increased from 9 to 21% and from 21 to 35% of wet mass, respectively, throughout lactation. Energy increased from 6 to 9 kJ · g−1 wet mass, primarily due to the increase in fat concentration. Total sugar levels decreased slightly but non-significantly. Mean sugar level was 4.0% of wet mass. Protein concentration increased from 6 to 11% of wet mass at peak lactation and then decreased as pups approached weaning age. Total milk energy output until pups began to forage was 3609 kJ. Milk levels of Mg, Fe, Ca, K, and Na averaged 0.55 ± 0.26, 0.23 ± 0.2, 8.75 ± 4.17, 5.42 ± 2.11, and 9.87 ± 4.3 mg · g−1 dry matter, respectively. Of the minerals studied, calcium appears to be most limiting in this species. The high degree of variability in foraging time, milk composition and milk yield between individuals at the same stage of lactation could potentially yield high variance in reproductive success among females of this polygynous species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7039
    Keywords: Whales ; dolphins ; marine mammals ; lactation duration ; milk composition ; milk yield
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Although it has been more than one hundred years since the first publication on the milks of whales and dolphins (Order Cetacea), information on lactation in these species is scattered and fragmentary. Yet the immense size of some cetaceans, and the recent evidence that another group of marine mammals, the true seals, have remarkable rates of secretion of milk fat and energy, make this group of great comparative interest. In this paper information on lactation patterns, milk composition and lactation performance is reviewed. Two very different patterns are evident. Many of the baleen whales (Suborder Mysticeti) have relatively brief lactations (5–7 months) during which they fast or eat relatively little. At mid-lactation they produce milks relatively low in water (40–53%), high in fat (30–50%), and moderately high in protein (9–15%) and ash (1.2–2.1%). From mammary gland weights and postnatal growth rates, it is predicted that their energy outputs in milk are exceptional, reaching on the order of 4000 MJ/d in the blue whale. This is possible because pregnant females migrate to feeding grounds where they can ingest and deposit great amounts of energy, building up blubber stores prior to parturition. On the other hand, the toothed whales and dolphins (Suborder Odontoceti) have much more extensive lactations typically lasting 1–3 years, during which the mothers feed. At mid-lactation their milks appear to be higher in water (60–77%) and lower in fat (10–30%) and ash (0.6–1.1%), with similar levels of protein (8–11%). At least some odontocetes resemble primates in terms of low predicted rates of energy output and a long period of dependency of the young. However, these hypotheses are based on small numbers of samples for a relatively small number of species. Much of the available data on milk composition is of rather poor quality; for example, it is not possible to determine if milk composition changes over the course of lactation among odontocetes. Additional research on cetacean mammary glands and their secretions is needed to understand the reproductive strategies of these fascinating animals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Observed changes in maternal investment due to an environmentally induced decrease in food supply (the 1983 El Niño-Southern Oscillation) are compared witha priori predictions for the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Changes in behavior, growth and mortality of off-spring were also examined. Data collected in the first two months postpartum for the years before (PRE), during (EN), and the two years after (POST1 and POST2) the 1983 El Niño indicate that females initiated postpartum feeding trips earlier during the food shortage, and spent more time away on individual feeding trips in both the El Niño year and the year after. Perinatal sex ratios (♀:♂) in the years PRE, EN, POST1 and POST2 were 1:1, 1.4:1, 1.1:1 and 1:1.4, respectively. Fewer copulations were observed during the El Niño year, but this difference was not statistically significant. Pups spent less time suckling in the food shortage year and the year following, but attempted to sneak suckle more. Pups were less active and played on land less in the El Niño and following year. Finally, maternal investment as measured by milk intake of offspring was decreased, pups grew more slowly, and suffered increased mortality during the food shortage year. Despite expected sex differences in maternal investment and pup behavior in response to food shortage, there were no sex-biased differences in response in either females or pups. As expected, the food shortage did not affect adult males since they migrate north during the non-breeding season where the environmental perturbation was less severe.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Observed changes in maternal investment due to an environmentally induced decrease in food supply (the 1983 El Niño-Southern Oscillation) are compared witha priori predictions for the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Changes in behavior, growth and mortality of off-spring were also examined. Data collected in the first two months postpartum for the years before (PRE), during (EN), and the two years after (POST1 and POST2) the 1983 El Niño indicate that females initiated postpartum feeding trips earlier during the food shortage, and spent more time away on individual feeding trips in both the El Niño year and the year after. Perinatal sex ratios (♀:♂) in the years PRE, EN, POST1 and POST2 were 1:1, 1.4:1, 1.1:1 and 1:1.4, respectively. Fewer copulations were observed during the El Niño year, but this difference was not statistically significant. Pups spent less time suckling in the food shortage year and the year following, but attempted to sneak suckle more. Pups were less active and played on land less in the El Niño and following year. Finally, maternal investment as measured by milk intake of offspring was decreased, pups grew more slowly, and suffered increased mortality during the food shortage year. Despite expected sex differences in maternal investment and pup behavior in response to food shortage, there were no sex-biased differences in response in either females or pups. As expected, the food shortage did not affect adult males since they migrate north during the non-breeding season where the environmental perturbation was less severe.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...