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  • 1
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Cryptococcus neoformans exhibited diphasic growth when grown under limited aeration. First, it grew exponentially, but at OD 1, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in culture decreased to 1 mg l−1 and a second phase of slow growth was started. This phase was characterized by a shift of budding from S to G2, a sharp decrease in budding index and a sharp increase in the proportion of unbudded G2 cells to 80%. Thus, a deficit in oxygen was demonstrated to delay the timing of budding, prolong the G2 phase and cause accumulation of cells after DNA synthesis, but before commitment to budding.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The G2 index of the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans determined by laser scanning cytometer was 2–3 times higher than the budding index during transition to the stationary phase of the culture, indicating that buds emerged in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. To clarify whether buds also emerge in G2 during exponential growth of the culture, DNA content for each cell was measured with a fluorescence microscope equipped with a photomultiplier. The DNA content of cells having tiny buds varied rather widely, depending on growth phases and strains used. Typically, buds of C. neoformans emerged soon after initiation of DNA synthesis in the early exponential phase. However, bud emergence was delayed to G2 during transition to the stationary phase, and in the early stationary phase budding scarcely occurred, although roughly half of the cells completed DNA synthesis. Thus, the timing of budding in C. neoformans was actually shifted to later cell cycle points with progression of the growth phase of the culture.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Nocardia otitidiscaviarum ; exotoxin poisoning ; RER ; autophagic vacuole ; nocardiosis ; fatty liver
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An exotoxin (HS-6) produced by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum isolated from certain lesions of cutaneous nocardiosis of a male 82-year-old patient induced severe injuries in the pancreas, liver, stomach, small intestine, heart, thymus and kidney of male ICR mice. Mice given Nocardia-free preparation of HS-6 at a dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight developed several autophagic vacuoles in the pancreas and liver within 20 min after the i.p. injection. Thereafter, the autophagic vacuoles increased in number and size with time. About 24 hr after the administration of HS-6, the liver showed marked accumulation of fat droplets in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes. Although they contained abundant autophagic vacuoles in the regions of RER, there were no lipomatoses in the acinar cells of the pancreas, those of the chief cells and smooth muscle cells of the stomach, Paneth cells, goblet cells, smooth muscle cells of the small intestine, and plasma cells in the digestive tract. Biochemical examinations revealed that HS-6 had no significant effect on the protein synthesis of reticulocytes. Inoculation of the Nocardia into the mouse peritoneal cavities caused marked granulomatoses in the pancreas, liver and regional lymph nodes, but did not develop autophagic vacuoles in RER regions of these organs.
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