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  • 1
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    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Call number: C020:89
    Keywords: Epidemiology ; Epidemiology / education ; Teaching / methods
    Notes: Previous ed. has subtitle: What you should know and what you could do.
    Pages: xi, 394 p.
    Edition: 2nd ed.
    ISBN: 0192630660
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    C020:89 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
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  • 2
    Keywords: Medicine ; Epidemiology ; Medicine & Public Health ; Epidemiology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9781441914972
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Contact dermatitis 51 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Occupational hand eczema (OHE) is the most frequently recognized work-related disease in Denmark and the annual cost to society is high. Understanding of the epidemiology of OHE is essential to be able to give appropriate recommendations for its prevention. The study comprised 758 persons, 490 females and 268 males with recognized OHE in the period October 2001 to November 2002. Data were obtained prospectively from the National Board of Industrial Industry Registry and from a self-administered questionnaire (response rate, 82%). The most frequently recognized diagnosis was irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), mainly caused by wet occupations. The proportion of occupational ICD was equal for males and females, 59.7% and 63.1%, respectively. The estimated rates of OHE were high for bakers, hairdressers and dental surgery assistants, and a high proportion of apprentices were found among hairdressers. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis was low (16.4%) compared to previous studies among hand eczema patients. The prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in the study population was substantially higher among males than females, and the most frequent causes among males were allergy to chromium (leather exposure), rubber additives (gloves) and nickel due to exposure from work tools and metalworking industry.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Case–control analysis ; Chloramphenicol ; Congenital abnormalities ; Human teratogenic potential
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The objective of the study was to check the human teratogenic potential of oral chloramphenicol treatments during pregnancy. Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls was performed in the large population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case–Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980–1996. Of 38,151 pregnant women who had babies without any defects (control group), 51 (0.13%), while of 22,865 pregnant women who had newborn infants or fetuses with congenital abnormalities, 52 (0.23%) pregnant women were treated with oral chloramphenicol. The case–control pair analysis did not show any human teratogenic potential of chloramphenicol during the second–third months of pregnancy in the different groups of congenital abnormalities. The occurrence of chloramphenicol treatment in the total control group as referent was compared with the occurrence of chloramphenicol treatment in the different congenital abnormality groups during the second–third months of gestation (i.e., in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities) and a higher adjusted OR for this drug was found only in the group with undescended testis based on only two cases. At the evaluation of medically documented chloramphenicol treatment a higher OR was not found in any congenital abnormalities. Thus, chloramphenicol treatment during early pregnancy presents little, if any, teratogenic risk to the fetus in humans.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: adenocarcinoma ; alcohol ; epidemiology ; small intestine ; tobacco
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective:To discover whether tobacco smoking and intake of different types of alcoholic drinks are associated with small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA). Methods:A population-based European multi-center case–control study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Results:After a histological review using uniform diagnostic criteria, 47 (33%) of the 142 identified cases of SBA were excluded due to reclassification as either tumors of the papilla of Vater (n = 22), stromal tumors, or metastases; 95 cases were accepted for study. In all, 70 cases of SBA together with 2070 controls matched by age, sex, and region were interviewed. A high intake (more than 24 g alcohol per day) of beer or spirits was associated with SBA, an odds ratio (OR) of 3.5 and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 1.5–8.0 and 3.4 (95% CI 1.3–9.2), respectively). There was no association with wine intake or total alcohol intake. Tobacco smoking was probably unrelated to SBA. Conclusions:A high intake of beer or spirits seems to be a risk factor for SBA. Since this association was not seen for wine drinkers, protective components of wine may counterbalance a carcinogenic effect of alcohol on the small bowel. Alternatively, the result may be confounded by other factors, e.g. dietary factors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Colon cancer ; Denmark ; genetics ; inflammatory bowel diseases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: It has been suggested that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colon cancer are associated because they have genetic susceptibility in common, rather than IBD causing cancer. We examined the risk of colorectal cancer in first-degree relatives of patients with IBD in order to evaluate if they share the same genetic susceptibility. Methods: We identified patients with IBD in the Danish Hospital Discharge Registry. A cohort of all first-degree relatives to these patients were linked to the Danish Cancer Registry. Colorectal cancers observed were compared with expected values based on age, gender, and calendar-specific incidence rates in the general population. Results: Among 4,496 patients with IBD, a total of 19,645 relatives were identified. For parents of patients with Crohn's disease, we observed 19 cases of colorectal cancer compared with 20 expected (standardized incidence ratio [SIR]=1.0, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.6-1.5). For parents of patients with ulcerative colitis, 55 cases were observed compared with 51 expected (SIR=1.1, CI=0.8-1.4). Conclusions: The study did not corroborate the hypothesis that the same genetic factors play a significant role in the etiology of colorectal cancer and IBD, but more information is needed to disregard the possible link between IBD and colon cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast cancer ; endometrium cancer ; Oestrogen-related cancers ; ovaries cancer ; reproductive outcomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: There has been speculation that women with oestrogen-related cancers have been exposed to high levels of oestrogen in earlier life and therefore also during their pregnancies prior to the disease. For this reason we examined signs of reproductive outcome related to oestrogen exposure such as twinning, sex ratio, birth weight and congenital malformation in women who later were diagnosed with breast cancer, endometrial or ovarian cancer. Methods: For 5213 children born to women who later developed breast cancer, 557 children born to women who later developed ovarian cancer and 173 children born to mothers with endometrial cancers we selected as a control four times as many newborns of mothers without these cancers after matching for mothers'; parity, age, date of birth and hospital attended. All data were extracted from existing nationwide files. Most of the women's reproductive lives fell within the period of the birth registry from 1973 to 1993. Results: No differences in sex ratio, birth weight or malformation were found between the newborns to cancer or control mothers in any of the cancer groups studied. The only significant findings were less than expected births of twins to mothers who later developed cancer of the ovaries and a higher proportion of newborns with a birth weight over 4000g in the cancer corpus uterus group. Conclusion: Although the amount of information is limited for endometrial and ovarian cancers, we found no strong indication of elevated oestrogen levels during pregnancy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background: Pre-existing diabetes has been associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations overall, but studies on genital anomalies in boys are conflicting and possible causal mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have mainly assessed pregestational and gestational diabetes in combination. Yet considering the vulnerable time windows for the genital anomalies, associations could well differ between types of diabetes and between the 2 genital anomalies and we therefore aimed to study this further. Methods: A population-based cohort study of 2,416,246 singleton live-born boys from Denmark (1978–2012) and Sweden (1987–2012) was carried out using Danish and Swedish register-based data. Using Cox regression models, we estimated hazard ratios for hypospadias and cryptorchidism according to maternal diabetes. We considered type and severity of diabetes, as well as timing of diagnosis in relation to birth. Results: Pregestational type 1 diabetes was associated with a higher risk of both genital anomalies. The highest risks were seen for boys of mothers with diabetic complications (hazard ratio for hypospadias = 2.33 [95% confidence interval, 1.48, 3.66] and hazard ratio for cryptorchidism = 1.92 [95% confidence interval, 1.39, 2.65]). Gestational diabetes was associated with slightly increased risks of both genital anomalies. Conclusions: These results are consistent with the hypothesis that poor glycemic control may interfere with fetal genital development in the critical early period of organogenesis. Given the widespread and increasing occurrence of diabetes, these results are of public health importance.
    Print ISSN: 1044-3983
    Electronic ISSN: 1531-5487
    Topics: Medicine
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