Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Summary Eleven Na-azide induced barley shrunken endosperm mutants expressing xenia (sex) were characterized genetically and histologically. All mutants have reduced kernel size with kernel weights ranging from 11 to 57% of the wild type. With one exception, the mutant phenotypes are ascribable to single recessive mutant alleles, giving rise to a ratio of 3∶1 of normal and shrunken kernels on heterozygous plants. One mutant (B10), also monofactorially inherited, shows a gene dosage dependent pattern of expression in the endosperm. Among the 8 mutants tested for allelism, no allelic mutant genes were discovered. By means of translocation mapping, the mutant gene of B10 was localized to the short arm of chromosome 7, and that of B9 to the short arm of chromosome 1. Based on microscopy studies, the mutant kernel phenotypes fall into three classes, viz. mutants with both endosperm and embryo affected and with a non-viable embryo, mutants with both endosperm and embryo affected and with a viable embryo giving rise to plants with a clearly mutant phenotype, and finally mutants with only the endosperm affected and with a normal embryo giving rise to plants with normal phenotype. The mutant collection covers mutations in genes participating in all of the developmental phases of the endosperm, i.e. the passage from syncytial to the cellular endosperm, total lack of aleurone cell formation and disturbance in the pattern of aleurone cell formation. In the starchy endosperm, varying degrees of cell differentiation occur, ranging from slight deviations from wild type to complete loss of starchy endosperm traits. In the embryo, blocks in the major developmental phases are represented in the mutant collection, including arrest at the proembryo stage, continued cell divisions but no differentiation, and embryos deviating only slightly from the wild type.
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