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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Temperature is a key environmental cue for Yersinia enterocolitica as well as for the two other closely related pathogens, Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Between the range of 30°C and 37°C, Y. enterocolitica phase-varies between motility and plasmid-encoded virulence gene expression. To determine how temperature regulates Y. enterocolitica motility, we have been dissecting the flagellar regulatory hierarchy to determine at which level motility is blocked by elevated temperature (37°C). Here we report the cloning, DNA sequences, and regulation of the two main regulators of Class III flagellar genes, fliA (σF) and flgM (anti-σF), and a third gene, flgN, which we show is required for filament assembly. Identification of the Y. enterocolitica fliA and flgM genes was accomplished by functional complementation of both S. typhimurium and Y. enterocolitica mutations and by DNA sequence analysis. The Y. enterocolitica fliA gene, encoding the flagellar-specific σ-factor, σF, maps immediately downstream of the three flagellin structural genes. The flgM and flgN genes, encoding anti-σF and a gene product required for filament assembly, respectively, map downstream of the invasin (inv) gene but are transcribed in the opposite (convergent) direction. By using Northern blot analyses we show that transcription of both fliA and flgM is immediately arrested when cells are exposed to 37°C, coincident with the timing of virulence gene induction. Unlike S. typhimurium flgM− mutants, Y. enterocolitica flgM− mutants are fully virulent.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 26 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Extracellular protein secretion by the main terminal branch of the general secretory pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires a secretion machinery comprising the products of at least 12 genes. One of the components of this machinery, the XcpR protein, belongs to a large family of related proteins distinguished by the presence of a highly conserved nucleotide binding domain (Walker box A). The XcpR protein is essential for the process of extracellular secretion and amino acid substitutions within the Walker A sequence result in inactive XcpR. The same mutations exert a dominant negative effect on protein secretion when expressed in wild-type bacteria. Transdominance of XcpR mutants suggests that this protein is involved in interactions with other components of the secretion machinery or that it functions as a multimer. In this study, the amino-terminal portion of the cI repressor protein of phage λ was used as a reporter of dimerization in Escherichia coli following fusion to full-length as well as a truncated form of XcpR. The cI–XcpR hybrid proteins were able to dimerize, as demonstrated by the immunity of bacteria expressing them to killing by λ phage. The full-length XcpR as well as several deletion mutants of XcpR were able to disrupt the dimerization of the chimeric cI–XcpR protein. The disruption of cI–XcpR dimers using the deletion mutants of XcpR, combined with the analysis of their dominant negative effects on protein secretion, was used to map the minimal dimerization domain of XcpR, which is located within an 85 amino acid region in its N-terminal domain. Taken together, the data presented in this paper suggest that the XcpR protein dimerizes via its N-terminus and that this dimerization is essential for extracellular protein secretion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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