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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; TUMOR-CELLS ; RISK ; GENE ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; MAMMALIAN-CELLS ; XERODERMA-PIGMENTOSUM ; traditional Chinese medicine ; cancer therapy ; TRADITIONAL CHINESE-MEDICINE ; essential oil ; COCKAYNE-SYNDROME ; CSB ; INDUCED DNA-DAMAGE ; PIGMENTOSUM GROUP-C ; XPC ; CHENOPODIUM ; ERCC6 ; Synthetic lethal
    Abstract: Targeting synthetic lethality in DNA repair pathways has become a promising anti-cancer strategy. However little is known about such interactions with regard to the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Therefore, cell lines with a defect in the NER genes ERCC6 or XPC and their normal counterparts were screened with 53 chemically defined phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional Chinese medicine for differential cytotoxic effects. The screening revealed 12 drugs that killed NER-deficient cells more efficiently than proficient cells. Five drugs were further analyzed for IC(50) values, effects on cell cycle distribution, and induction of DNA damage. Ascaridol was the most effective compound with a difference of 〉1000-fold in resistance between normal and NER-deficient cells (IC(50) values for cells with deficiency in ERCC6: 0.15muM, XPC: 0.18muM, and normal cells: 〉180muM). NER-deficiency combined with ascaridol treatment led to G2/M-phase arrest, an increased percentage of subG1 cells, and a substantially higher DNA damage induction. These results were confirmed in a second set of NER-deficient and -proficient cell lines with isogenic background. Finally, ascaridol was characterized for its ability to generate oxidative DNA damage. The drug led to a dose-dependent increase in intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species at cytotoxic concentrations, but only NER-deficient cells showed a strongly induced amount of 8-oxodG sites. In summary, ascaridol is a cytotoxic and DNA-damaging compound which generates intracellular reactive oxidative intermediates and which selectively affects NER-deficient cells. This could provide a new therapeutic option to treat cancer cells with mutations in NER genes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22280988
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  • 2
    Abstract: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) gains a lot of attention due to high prevalence and strong psychological upset, but the etiology remains undefined and effective treatment is quite limited. Growing studies demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress in various psychiatry diseases, suggesting anti-oxidation therapy might be a strategy for PTSD treatment. Free and Easy Wanderer (FAEW) is a poly-herbal drug clinically used in China for hundreds of years in the treatment of psychiatric disorder. We hypothesized that FAEW exerts clinical effects through the activity against oxidative stress with fluoxetine as antidepressant control drug. Our results revealed that FAEW significantly reduced both endogenous and H2O2-induced exogenous ROS levels in the human glioblastoma T98G and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. Transcriptome-wide microarray analysis indicated NRF2/HO-1 as the common target of FAEW and fluoxetine. Western blotting assay proved that the two drugs promoted NRF2 release from KEAP1 in the cytoplasm and translocation to the nuclei in a KEAP1-dependent manner, the expression of the protein HO-1 increased accordingly, suggesting the participation of KEAP1-NRF2/HO-1 pathway. The chemical constituents of FAEW (i.e. paeoniflorin, baicalin) bound to KEAP1 in silico, which hence might be the effective substances of FAEW. In conclusion, FAEW counteracted H2O2-induced oxidative stress through KEAP1-NRF2/HO-1 pathway.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28912423
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